a summary term that describes the tendency to behave, feel, and think in ways that are consisten across different situations
Who attempted to make a list of traits? How many did he find? What did he not include?
Gordon Allport 4,500 words not temporary moods, social evaluations, physical attributes
What are surface traits?
certain info that clustered together; easy to identify from correlations
What are source traits?
surface traits directed into more traits
Who studied surface.soruce traits?
What is the 16PF5
Cattel's Sixteen Personality Facotrs Questionnaire with 16 traits to describe everyone
What are the Big Five Traits?
1-openness to experience 2-conscientiousness 3-extraversion 4-agreeableness 5- neuroticism OCEAN
Disagreement especially on which trait?
openness to experience
What does Loehlin believe/find about genetics and personality?
51-58% of differences in personality is heritability related usually b/w 20 and 50%
Who developed the Praimary Four? What is the Primary Four?
Mayer 1. plesant affect-depression: this area encompasses both motivation and emotion 2.high vs. low intelligence-area in cludes knowledge and general intelligence 3-social competency-incompetency--area is devoted to the ability o carry out social tasks4 4-organized ve. diffused awareness-deals with general organized awareness: openness, mindfulness, and self-regulation
How does Eysenck say we should organize traits? What are his three main categories?
first fin narrowly defined categories and then broader ones
extroversion neuroticism-emotional instability anxiety, guilt, shy psychotism-aggressiveness, no empathy, and impulsitivity
What do extroverts prefer?
working in large groups, shorter attn span didnt differ in use for tech in the classroom
What is trepanation?
opening of hole in skull and leaving the membranes surrounding the brain intact; increases flow of blood to capillaries in brain=more energy=more function; ileegal in US and Europe
What did Hippocrates believe about bodily fluids in humans?
four main ones: black bile, blood, phlegm, yellow bile
the most abundant fluid would determine personality
What is phrenology?
1800 attempt to study a person by analyzing the bumps and indents on one's skull
Who was a major contributor to phrenology?
Franz Joseph Gall
Who developed the idea that body shape determines personality?
What are the three body types proposed by SHeldon?
endomorphs=round; love comfort, outgoing mesomorphs=rectangular; assertive, energetic ectomorphs=thin; restrained and lonely
Who developed a self-inventory to measure sensation seeking?
What is sensation seeking realed to?
extraversion and conscientiousness
What can sensation seeking be divided into?
disinhibition-seeking sensation thru social events thrill seeking-seek sensations thru physical risk experience seeking-seek novel expereinces thru mind and sense boredom susceptibility-intolerance for repetitive experiences
High sensation seeking people seek what flavors more?
spicy, sour, and crunchy foods drugs and alcohol usage is more jobs can reflect high: firefighter, police, race car driver,sporty people
What enzyme breaks down norepinephrine?
What can occur if drugs inhibit the production of MAO?
too much norepinephrine and euphoric, impulsive, and aggressive
negative correlation b/w MAO and sensation seeking behavior
Low levels of MAO and high of nor=
high sensation seeking scores
What University took an interest in studying twins and their personality differences?
Universoty if Minnesota
What did UofM find when studying 44 pairs of identical twins that were separated early in life?
similar correlations to those reared together
Genetics does/does not play a role in personality.
DOES -p.452 Table see that identical twin correlations were consistently higher than correlations b/w fraternal twins
What does Buss predict about evolution and dating?
women pick men who have good resources (food, shelter, protection)
women will not date/sexually relate with men who are not hardworking, ambitious, energetic, industrious, persevering, good income, good social status, family background (must have some qualities)
What characteristic do men seek?
Was salary important to women win Driggers and Helms study?
YES!!! as salaries increased...so did willingness to date
What did Freud believe?
unconscious factors could determine our personality
talkative, expressive in gestures and facials, assertive, gregarious, active, humorous, energetic, optimistic, upbeat
low scores=solitary, queit, reserved, low energy
altruistic, interactions with others, sympathetic, straightforward, warm, considerate
self-defeating, anxious, concerned about personla adequacy, mood fluctuations, negative emotions, less effective at coping with stress, impulsive
low scores=unemotional, calm, even-tempered, self-satisfied, comfortable with themselves
Describe openness to experience.
appreciation of knowledge, art, nontraditional values, highly introspective, attentive to inner feelings, intellectual, creative
low scores=down-to-earth, conventional, preferring routines, not intellectually oriented
the extent to which a theory explains a broad range of personality phenomena. preferred!!
simplicity of theory preferred when theories have equal explanatory power
degree to which a theory is helpful in the sense of having important practical applications
Describe heuristic function.
degree to which a theory guides or influences future research
Describe empirical validity.
degree to which a theory is supported by scientific research
What did Freud develop that is extremely well known today?
theory of personality that emphasized unconscious factors and therapy for patients exhibiting abnormal behaviors
Where was Freud born/grow up? When?
Austria-1856 grew up Jewish family in Vienna
What era did he live in? What views were important during this era?
Victorian repressive view of sexuality anti-Semitism: prejudice against Jews (did not pursue career as scientist or get married b/c of $)
He became a neurologist with what type of patients?
women with hysterical disorders with symptoms such as blindness/paralysis ∴ Freud thought sexual tension caused this
*heard about sex w/ older males but believed to be fantasies b/c patients could not differentiate reality and dreams...probs witnessed sexual abuse too
What theory did Freud develop in result of his belief that the sexual desires needed to be brought to conscious awareness?
psychoanalysis or psychoanalytic therapy
What are the three concepts that form the backbone of Freud's theory?
psychic determinism, instincts, and levels of consciousness
Define psychic determinism
the psychodynamic assumption that all behaviors result from early childhood experiences, especially conflicts related to sexual insticts
What is a Freudian slip?
a psychic determinism *example at a boring party want to say-I'm sorry I have to leave now. actually say-I'm glad I have to leave now. SLIP!
What are the two instincts Freud describes?
eros-life-giving/pleasure-producing activities (sex) thanatos-agression and destruction
a personal awareness of internal and external events
How does Freud describe conscious?
level of thoughts. wishes, and emotions you are aware of at the moment
What is preconscious?
level below consciousness which has contents that are waiting to be pulled into consciousness
part of the personality that lies outside of awareness yet is believed to be crucial determinant of behavior; Freud=most important
What is the id?
primitive, biological side of our personality *selfish and has no concern for others or for society *unconscious *operates on pleasure principle of seeking immediate gratification
What is the ego?
(aka-executive of personality) realistic plan for obtaining id operates on the reality principle must tolerate delay and frustration b/c of un-immediate gratification
What are the two components of the superego?
conscience-moral part of superego (little voice) ego ideal-superego's positive side; things that make us proud; motivates us to strive for perfection
Imagine IES like a car...
I and S pull opposite ways-both unrealistic and irrational
E has to make adjustments and find middle ground
LOOK AT figure..and table
What warns the ego that conflict is occurring?
HOw does the ego defend itself when the alarm of anxiety/guilt rings?
Define defense mechanism
psychodynamic term used to describe primarily unconscious methods of reducing anxiety/guilt that results from conflicts among the id, ego, and superego
What are erogenous zones?
parts of body to please
Who developed psychosexual stages? before or after Erkison's psychosocial?
What are the five stages in psychosexual development?
oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital
Define oral stage
1st stage in psychosexual development in which the MOUTH is the focus of pleasure-seeking activity
What happens if a child's oral stimulation is delayed according to Freud?
personality becomes arrested/fixated
cessation of further development, resulting in behaviors that are characteristic of the stage of development in which the fixation occurred
What can be shown in adulthood if fixation occurs at the oral stage?
chewing on pencils, overeating, excessive dependency, optimism, gullibility
Define anal stage.
second stage of psychosexual development during which the focus of pleasure is the ANUS and conflict often occurs as efforts are made to toilet-train the child
When does the anal stage occur?
18 months-3 years of age
What occurs in adulthood if a person is fixated at anal-explusive?
What occurs in adulthood if a person is fixated at anal-retentive
Define phallic stage.
3rd stage of psychosexual development in which the genital organs become the focus of pleasure-seeking behavior
When does the phallic stage occur?
Define oedipal complex.
proces that occurs during the phallic stage in which a boy wishes to posses his mother sexually and fears retaliation by his father
Define electra complex.
process that occurs during the phallic stage in which a girl wishes to posses her father sexually
What is castration anxiety?
fear of father's retaliation leading to injury of genitals
leads to boy identifying with father in behavior, values, attitudes, and sexual orientatio
What is successful completion of the Oedipal complex according to Freud?
acquisition of the male sex role
Girls experience penis envy which is...
realization they do not have a penis; anger towards mother and sexual attraction towards father; fantasy that seducing him will give her a penis
When does resolution of the Electra complex occur according to Freud?
represses sexual desires and identifies with her mother
What complex ends up weaker??
Define latency stage.
fourth stage of psychosexual development that extends from age 6 until onset of puberty and is characterized by LOW LEVELS of sexual interest
Define genital stage.
last stage of psychosexual development that begins at puberty and usually leads to normal adult sexual development
of psychosexual development stages
What are neo-Freudians?
those who do not accept Freud's emphasis on id and sexual motives but emphasize ego and role of development of personality
Who is one of the best known neo-Freudians?
What is collective unconsciousness?
images shared by all people images aka archetypes
How are archetypes passed down?
What are four archetypes Jung proposed?
persona-mask of true personality anima-exhibition of F and Male characteristics shadow-the animal instinct/dark side of our personal. self-part of personality that provides unity and stability and attempts to integrate the different aspects of our personality
Who viewed personality disturbances as stemming from basic anxiety we all share?
What are the three basic adjusting patterns used to reduce anxiety according to Horney?
moving toward people -for affection/approval moving against people-uses power/control to exploit others moving away from people-withdraw from the situation
When does a peron's behavior become abnormal in regards to adjusting patterns for anxiety?
when only one pattern is used in all situations
What did Adler arge that a person's primary drive is?
social not sexual
What does an individual strive to overcome?
feelings of inferiority started as a child b/c of inevitable weakness; spend much of our lives striving to compensate for perceived shortcomings
Who was embarrassed by stuttering?
WHo was considered to be the first self theorist? WHY?
Adler b/c placed emphasis on SELF creative power of the self-shape own destiny (free will)
Who was the first theorist to stress importance of birth order in a determinant of personality?
Why is it hard to study parenting practices on fixations?
Freud did not specify conditions that might lead to fixations; (tests have mixed results)
Freud treated many female cases but developed generalizations mainly to male individuals. also study small group of disturbed individuals whose results may not be applicable to all.
How did Freud listen to his patients?
sat behind the couch and only wrote things down at end of session
Who developed the first to outline a stage of development theory ?
What do behaviorists such as skinner look at in personality?
What do behaviorists believe about free will?
does not exist
What is behavior modification a form of?
Skinner's classical conditioning w/ stimulus and response
theory that learning occurs through watching and imitating the behaviors of others
According to Rotter what are most of the reinforcers we strive to obtain?
social=hugs, praise, attention
What is expectancy? important in whose theory?
notion of likelihood of success or failure
social learning theory of Rotter
What are internals?
people who believe that they can influence their reinforcers via their skill and ability
What are externalS?
people who believe that whether they attain a desired outcome is primarily die to chance or fate
Define locus of control.
whether a person sees his/her behavior as controlled by external factors/locus or internal factors/locus
How is a locus of control measured?
Rotter's I-E Scale
What accounts for differences in I-E ratings?
an individual's learning history, cultural factors Western=more internal
What is individualisti conception of self?
How do difference in the evaluation of self develop? ex
differences in socialization ex.. Asian-modesty, self-restrain American-loudest problems get most attn Japan-nail stands out gets pounded down
What is Albert Bandura known for?
research on observational learning model of aggressive behavior and overcoming phobias
Define reciprocal determinism. Who?
contention that person variables, situation variable, and behavior constantly interact Bandura
Environment not only cause of behavior but also the effect of behavior. Give ex.
studying instead of spending time with friends reduces social pressures or invitations to go out
part of Bandura's theory that states a person's beliefs about his skills and ability to perform effective behaviors; cannot be generalized b/c differ from one behavior to another ∴ not considered a trait
What four sources of info can influence self-efficacy?
1-past performance 2-watching others in similar situations and noting the consequences they experience 3-verbal persuasion (depends on persuader's trust and expertise) 4-phsyiological arousal
Define humanistic psychology.
general approach to psychology associated with Maslow and ROgers that emphasizes individuals' control of their behavior; focus on present and healthy personality; view individual's perception of events as more significant than other theories
What does Maslow believe about self-actualization?
everyone has need; often thwarted by environment
What are some characteristics of self-actualized individuals?
accept own natures, spontaneous/natural, democratic in nature, privacy, focus on problems outside of self, strong ethical/moral sense, close/limited number of friendships, independent of cultural and social environment, philosophical humor
Who is included on Maslow's list of self-actualized individuals?
Abe Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, Eleanor Roosevelt, Einstein, Mother Teresa
Critique of Maslow....
list of self-actualized individuals is not representative of general population
Who shared Maslow's belief that people are innately good and directed toward growth, development, and personal fulfillment?
Rogers believe we have own self concept.
positive self-concept=act positively vice versa too
Define conditional affection.Rogers
when one engages in behaviors that are approved by others
Describe unconditional positive regard. Rogers
person is accepted for wat he/she is not for what others would like person to be
Study Chart p.469
IN the olden days what was odd behavior, bad weather caused by?
What is trephining?
chipping a hole in the skyll to let the demon out
Who originally proposed that physical and psychological disorders have natural causes?
WHat were the four humors in the body that caused certain characteristics?
black bile, blood, phlegm, and yellow bile
What did elevated levels of black blood cause according to Hippocrates?
What happened to women with marks on them?
considered witches with Satan often tortured and killed
What were old institutions known for?
unsanitary conditions, disorganization, inhumane treatment of patients
What is bedlam?
describes such stated conditions
In paris 18th century...how were patients treated
chained to walls, keepers rarley were compassion, administered punishment
Who demanded patients' need for humane care and treatment?
Where did Pinel's ideas stem from? Why counter ideas?
Pssuin-former patient at place where Pinel worked
keep society safe from insane
What is moral management/moral therapy?
treatment philosophy created by Pinnel that reflects the belief that providing a humane and relaxed environment cound produce positive changes in a person's behavior
What was the first general hospital in the US with a separate unit for the mentally ill? Who introduced moral therapy here?
Philapdelphia's Penn Hospital
What is the tranquilizer chair that RUsh used?
patients with mania
Who convinced 20 states to establish/provide care for mentally ill?
What wsa Mesmer's view on psychological disorders and treatment?
animal magnetism believed he could harness magnetism as a form of therapy to treat patients...turned into hypnotism
Who else used hypnotism?
Freud-b/c involved therapy of unconscious mind
What is general paresis? WHere does it stem from?
paralysis/memory difficulty syphillis
Why did decline of mental hospital population decline in the 50s?
drugs-used to control symptoms belief that community care was more effective than hospitalization
in the 60s how did laws effect mental institutions?
patients could limit own treatment and care involuntarily commit patients ONLY if judged to be dangerous
policy of discharging mentally ill patients from institutions on the assumption that they can be cared for in their communities; led to closing of part/all of these institutions
What is the Commuity MEntal Health Centers ACt? When?
1963 provides funds for establishment of community mental health centers in which patients are treated in an out patient basis
What are the three forms of prevention of mental illness?
primary, secondary, and tertiary
Describe primary prevention.
prevent disorders from occurring workshops on stress reduction or community recreation programs
Describe secondary prevention
detect existing disorders and provide treatment at early stages crisis telephone line
Describe tertiary prevention
reduce damage caused by disorders for both the patients and society after-care program for former patients
What were Bush's 6 goals in 2003 about mental health.
1americans need to understand mental health better 2-mental =more consumer and family driven 3-disparities in mental health service=eliminated 4-early mental health screening/assessment =common practice 5-providers need to deliver excellent mental healthcare and excelled research 6-technology-used to access mental health info
How many children/teens suffer from mental health problems?
Is this increasing/decreasing? college?
increasing both also increasing psychotropic drugs
What is a factor that influences the decision to seek mental health treatment?
nature of disorder, number of disorders schiz=64% bipolar=61% panic=59% substance abuse only 24%
How many years can a person's life be shortened?
25 years (up to)
Where do people receive treatment??
5% in patient 10% inpatient and outpatient 85% outpatients
Define biomedical therapies.
set of treatments for mental illness that includes drugs, psychosurgery, and electroconvulsive therapy
Define psychological therapies.
treatments for psychological disorders such as psychotherapy or therapies based on classical or operant conditioning principles
special relationship b/w a distressed person and a trained therapist in which the therapist aids the client in developing awareness and changing his/her thinking, feeling, and behavior
What is a type of psychotherapy based on conditioning?
Table 13.1 and 13.2
What does eclectic or integrative approach?
using components from several therapies
What are the two key characteristics of psychotherapy?
1-special relationship b/w a distressed person and a trained therapist (comfortable atmosphere to express confidential info) 2-therapists help clients develop awareness and bring about changes in their behavior, feeling, and thinking
Define psychoanalytic therapy.
treatment of maladaptive behavior developed by Freud; goal is to uncover unconscious conflicts and feelings and bring them to the conscious level
What are the four processes that are hallmarks of psychoanalytic therapy?
free association, dream interpretation, resistance, and transference
DEfine free association. Who found it? How?
psychoanalytic technique in which the patient is asked to say whatever comes to mind without censoring anything
Freud-people who could not be hypnotized
What are the two forms of dream content? Define each.
manifest-dream you recall when you awaken latent-underlying meaning of dreams
a stage of psychoanalysis in which blocking of free association occurs because critical unconscious material is close to conscious awareness; repression protecting ego from anxiety revealed thru associations
patient's +/- reaction to the therapist which is believed to reflect the patient's relationship to a significant person outside of therapy
psychoanalyst transfers feelings to the client
Does symptom substitution typically occur?
How long does brief psychodynamic therapy take?
What is psychoanalytic therapy most effective on? not effective with
less serious problems yavis-young, attractive, verbal, intelligent, and successful
not with patients who have lost contact with reality
Define humanistic therapies.
therapies that emphasize the present and the ability of clients to solve their own problems once they are able to accept themselves
Define client-centered therapy.
type of humanistic therapy that is designed to create an environment in which the client is able to find his/her own solutions; founded by Rogers
What assumptions guide client-centered therapy?
1-people are good; posses drive to self-actual. 2-clients are responsible; respond to client do not ask questions; non directive therapy 3-no need for relationship to solve problems 4-unconditional positive regard (client=person of worth)
Define cognitive therapies.
therapies designed to change cognitions in order to eliminate maladaptive behavior
Define rational-emotive behavior therapy.
a cognitive therapy in which the therapist challenges and questions the client's irrational ideas; poposed by Epiictetus
What does Ellis call ABC framework? part of REBT
activating, beliefs, consequences
ex. rejection letter grad school--must succeed at everything I do-depression/feeling incompetent
What is activating?
event related to desire, goal, preference
What is beliefs?
failure to attain goal
What is consequences?
feelings of anger, anxiety, and depression
What begins irrational belief? Who?
should, oughts, musts, commands, and demands Ellis
What is the cognitive triad? Who?
Aaron Beck negative view of world, self, and future
What is selective abstraction? ex
cognitive distortion in which someone only focuses on the - aspects of an event and ignores the positive details
ex:single error in excellent term paper holds importance and =depression in student
What is overgeneralization? ex
cognitive distortion in which a person makes a generalization based on limited information
ex: I'm not college material. I'm going to fail at everything I do.
Who concluded that cognitive thearpy is as effective as antidepressant drugs.
Hollon, Shelton, and Loosen
What programs could behavior modification include? focus of BM is to...
reduce littering or increase the use of seatbelts change maladaptive behaviors
Who are two famous psychologists that had influence on behavioral techniques?
Watson and SKinner
What are the most frequent used behavioral techniques?
systematic desensitization, aversion therapy, modeling, extinction, punishment, and token economy
Define systematic desensitization
behavioral technique based on classical conditioning that is used to treat phobias; usually combines training in relaxation with exposure to imagined scenes related to a phobia
Who developed systematic desensitization?
What is the most popular choice in systematic desensitization techniques?
progressive relaxation as first step
Wat are the two versions of systematic desensitization?
in vivo graduated exposure to feared stimuli-real life imagined graduated exposure
What is ophidiophobia? Example of systematic desensitization.
fear of snakes
read definition and then locked in a room with snakes
Define aversion therapy.
classical conditioning technique for reducing or eliminating behavior by pairing the behavior with an unpleasant stimulus
What is covert sensitization?
form of aversion therapy that involves clients visualizing or imaging adverse consequences that might accompany unwanted behavior
What is another word for modeling?
Advocate for modeling is..
When does extinction occur?
reinforcers that maintained an undesired behavior no longer follow that behavior
How can punishment occur?
withdrawal of positive stimulus presentation of negative stimulus
Example of Susan.
ECT worked because punishment delivered EACH time
Define token economy.
technique that reinforces desirable behaviors with tokens (secondary reinforcers) which can be redeemed for other reinforcers, especially primary reinforcers (food)
What are the three major steps in establishing a token economy?
1-identify target behaviors 2-contingencies for each target must be established 3-exchange rules fortokens
Define cognitive behavior therapy (CBT).
therapeutic approach that consciously combines behavioral and cognitive theories and practices
What is the dominated theory of CBT? Who created this theory?
relational frame theory Hayes, Barne-Holmes, Roche
What is the relational frame theory? ex
stresses importance of understanding language and cognition in order to understand human behavior
ex:bee-see bee-see insect stung=bee-fear of word bee
What is self-monitoring? used for what disorders?
technique of CBT in which clients carefully monitor and record the occurrences of a specific behavior (obsessive handwashing) -OCD and depression
What is cognitive restructuring? used for what disorders?
technique of CBT that focuses on client learning how to identify and record the occurrence of incorrect or irrational thoughts -depression and eating disorders
What is mindfulness training? used for what disorders?
technique of CBT that is adopted from BUddhist philosophy; therapist teaches clients how to observe own behaviors/thoughts without judging them good or bad -PTSD -not good long-term results
Define group therapy.
therapy in which clients discuss problems in groups that may include individuals with similar problems
What are commonly treated disorders using group therapy?
depression, phobias, alcohol/drug abuse
What group therapies are most commonly used for treatment?
marital and family
What is marital therapy? aka...
attempts to stabilize and improve the relationship of two individuals who regard themselves as marital partners aka couples therapy
What does family therapy focus on?
larger family unit; parent and child at minimum, also both parents, stepparents, grandparents, etc.
usually for child problems with school, delinquency, aggressive behavior
Give two examples of self help groups.
AA-helps 1.5 million members world wide (oldest/largest) National Alliance for the Mentally Ill
What are two expanding areas of self-help?
internet and online
Who study pet therapy?
Results of pet therapy...
-only slight increase in bp -pets healthy pressure esp. for those w/o much human contact
Why is hard to study effectiveness of psychoherapy?
1-hard define success 2-therapies used to treat different problems 3-placebo effect
What is the placebo effect?
clients improve b/c they expect to improve regardless of specific aspects of therapy
What is meta-analysis?
???? chp. 11
Who published the first major study of the effectiveness of psychotherapy?
What is Nai-Kan?
Japanese therapy in which client finds out how he is ungrateful and troublesome to people who have extended themselves; meant to demonstrate gratitude and alliance w/ these people (focus on group vs. individual)
Why do many ethnic clients terminate therapy early? b/w 42-55% v. 30% white
therapists' stereotypes about ethnic clients -unaware of values and customs within a culture
matching is important...
study in LA with Mexican Americans
What 3 questions should one consider before entering into psychotherapy?
1-distress level intense enough to do something now 2-no longer able to handle problems on your own 3-distress affecting personal life, family, or work
What does psychotherapy help least?
people in the middle of a crisis that requires immediate intervention
How many sessions is therapy?
25 or less
panic=curable specific phobias=almost curable agoraphobia, depression, OCD=moderate relief PTSD=marginal relief sexual orientation=unchangeable
mental health is essential for good physical health
drug therapy focuses on the biological understandings of a disorder
Define antianxiety drugs.
minor tranquilizers, such as benzodiapines, used to reduce anxiety, usually increases the ability of neurotransmitter GABA to bind a synapses (increase in firing inhibitory neurons lowers level of neurological activity that produces anxiety)