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Dr.Sabin Chapters 11 and 13

Define personality.

relatively stable pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving that distinguishes one person from another

Define self-report inventories.

psychological test in which individuals answer questions about themselves, usually by responding yes/no or T/F; best-known and most widely used

Give two examples of self-report personality inventories. which one is most widely used??



Who developed the MMPI? When?

Hathaway and Mckinley
@ University of Minnesota

What does the MMPI diagnose?

psychological disorders such as depression and schizophrenia

How many items and clinical dimensions does the MMPI-2 have? adapted to how many languages?

567 items
10 clinical dimensions

How are items translated?

very carefully...hehe
paying special attn to words like frequently, sometimes, usually and slang...then back translation

What does the CPI predict? thru how many scales?

academic achievement, understand leadership, study individuals in carious occupations, drug users

translated into 29 languages

What is the Beck Depression INventory? WHy was it made?

limitation of MMPI's lengthy inventory
measures severity of depression in shorter more focused inventory

How are lies detected in the MMPI and MMPI-2?

validity scales such as the L scale which the examiner can then proceed to use clinical scales

Define projective tests. ex

psychological test that involves the use of unstructured or ambiguous stimuli in an effort to assess personality
ex: inkblots, make up stories with pictures, draw, complete others sentences

What is the Thmeatic Apperception Test (TAT)?

measures achievement motivation and make predictions of future achievement related behaviors

What happens with the 20 TAT cards?

examiner asks participant to make up a story to fit wat is happening in the card and what character is thinking and feeling and to give outcome

black and white pics with one blank


dropped ink onto paper and folded it in half creating a symmetrical pattern

5 cards black, white and gray
5 cards with various cards

How does one administer the R inkblot test?

1-displays card and asks what is seen
2-asks for aspects of each card that influenced the responses
3-reveal personality

ex: heavily reliance on color=impulsive behavior
depressed=few colors in responses

Define Barnum effect.

Meehls idea that the tendency to accept generalized personality descriptions as accurate descriptions of oneself

Who studied the Peace Corps volunteers succes and suggested study how SITUATIONS influenced behavior?


Why did Bem and Allen think that behaviors were consistent?

b/c of preconceived notions are how behaviors are related

ex: friendly people honest=conclude that honest even w/o knowing


reread highlighted

Patterns are more discernible when behaviors are added together.

Similarly to a test w/ numerous questions; altruism

What is aggregation? developed by who?

collect evidence on several behaviors

What are the five guidelines presented by Giordano to evaluate theories/perspectives?

comprehensiveness, parsimony, usefulness, heuristic function, empirical validity

Take notes Table 11.3


Define traits.

a summary term that describes the tendency to behave, feel, and think in ways that are consisten across different situations

Who attempted to make a list of traits? How many did he find? What did he not include?

Gordon Allport
4,500 words
not temporary moods, social evaluations, physical attributes

What are surface traits?

certain info that clustered together; easy to identify from correlations

What are source traits?

surface traits directed into more traits

Who studied surface.soruce traits?


What is the 16PF5

Cattel's Sixteen Personality Facotrs Questionnaire with 16 traits to describe everyone



What are the Big Five Traits?

1-openness to experience
5- neuroticism

Disagreement especially on which trait?

openness to experience

What does Loehlin believe/find about genetics and personality?

51-58% of differences in personality is heritability related usually b/w 20 and 50%

Who developed the Praimary Four? What is the Primary Four?

1. plesant affect-depression: this area encompasses both motivation and emotion
2.high vs. low intelligence-area in cludes knowledge and general intelligence
3-social competency-incompetency--area is devoted to the ability o carry out social tasks4
4-organized ve. diffused awareness-deals with general organized awareness: openness, mindfulness, and self-regulation

How does Eysenck say we should organize traits? What are his three main categories?

first fin narrowly defined categories and then broader ones

neuroticism-emotional instability anxiety, guilt, shy
psychotism-aggressiveness, no empathy, and impulsitivity

What do extroverts prefer?

working in large groups, shorter attn span
didnt differ in use for tech in the classroom

What is trepanation?

opening of hole in skull and leaving the membranes surrounding the brain intact; increases flow of blood to capillaries in brain=more energy=more function; ileegal in US and Europe

What did Hippocrates believe about bodily fluids in humans?

four main ones: black bile, blood, phlegm, yellow bile

the most abundant fluid would determine personality

What is phrenology?

1800 attempt to study a person by analyzing the bumps and indents on one's skull

Who was a major contributor to phrenology?

Franz Joseph Gall

Who developed the idea that body shape determines personality?

William Shledon

What are the three body types proposed by SHeldon?

endomorphs=round; love comfort, outgoing
mesomorphs=rectangular; assertive, energetic
ectomorphs=thin; restrained and lonely

Who developed a self-inventory to measure sensation seeking?


What is sensation seeking realed to?

extraversion and conscientiousness

What can sensation seeking be divided into?

disinhibition-seeking sensation thru social events
thrill seeking-seek sensations thru physical risk
experience seeking-seek novel expereinces thru mind and sense
boredom susceptibility-intolerance for repetitive experiences

High sensation seeking people seek what flavors more?

spicy, sour, and crunchy foods
drugs and alcohol usage is more
jobs can reflect high: firefighter, police, race car driver,sporty people

What enzyme breaks down norepinephrine?


What can occur if drugs inhibit the production of MAO?

too much norepinephrine and euphoric, impulsive, and aggressive

negative correlation b/w MAO and sensation seeking behavior

Low levels of MAO and high of nor=

high sensation seeking scores

What University took an interest in studying twins and their personality differences?

Universoty if Minnesota

What did UofM find when studying 44 pairs of identical twins that were separated early in life?

similar correlations to those reared together

Genetics does/does not play a role in personality.

-p.452 Table see that identical twin correlations were consistently higher than correlations b/w fraternal twins

What does Buss predict about evolution and dating?

women pick men who have good resources (food, shelter, protection)

women will not date/sexually relate with men who are not hardworking, ambitious, energetic, industrious, persevering, good income, good social status, family background (must have some qualities)

What characteristic do men seek?

reproductive capability,

Was salary important to women win Driggers and Helms study?

as salaries did willingness to date

What did Freud believe?

unconscious factors could determine our personality

Describe extraversion.

talkative, expressive in gestures and facials, assertive, gregarious, active, humorous, energetic, optimistic, upbeat

low scores=solitary, queit, reserved, low energy

Describe agreeableness.

altruistic, interactions with others, sympathetic, straightforward, warm, considerate

low scores=unkind, suspicious, unsympathetic, antagonistic

Describe conscientiousness.

well organized, dependable, organized, competent, responsible, can delay gratification, exhibit highly ethical behavior, high level of aspiration

low scores=disorganized, careless, inefficient, undependable

Describe neuroticism.

self-defeating, anxious, concerned about personla adequacy, mood fluctuations, negative emotions, less effective at coping with stress, impulsive

low scores=unemotional, calm, even-tempered, self-satisfied, comfortable with themselves

Describe openness to experience.

appreciation of knowledge, art, nontraditional values, highly introspective, attentive to inner feelings, intellectual, creative

low scores=down-to-earth, conventional, preferring routines, not intellectually oriented

Describe comprehensiveness.

the extent to which a theory explains a broad range of personality phenomena. preferred!!

Describe parsimony

simplicity of theory
preferred when theories have equal explanatory power

Describe usefulness.

degree to which a theory is helpful in the sense of having important practical applications

Describe heuristic function.

degree to which a theory guides or influences future research

Describe empirical validity.

degree to which a theory is supported by scientific research

What did Freud develop that is extremely well known today?

theory of personality that emphasized unconscious factors and therapy for patients exhibiting abnormal behaviors

Where was Freud born/grow up? When?

grew up Jewish family in Vienna

What era did he live in? What views were important during this era?

repressive view of sexuality
anti-Semitism: prejudice against Jews (did not pursue career as scientist or get married b/c of $)

He became a neurologist with what type of patients?

women with hysterical disorders with symptoms such as blindness/paralysis ∴ Freud thought sexual tension caused this

*heard about sex w/ older males but believed to be fantasies b/c patients could not differentiate reality and dreams...probs witnessed sexual abuse too

What theory did Freud develop in result of his belief that the sexual desires needed to be brought to conscious awareness?

psychoanalysis or psychoanalytic therapy

What are the three concepts that form the backbone of Freud's theory?

psychic determinism, instincts, and levels of consciousness

Define psychic determinism

the psychodynamic assumption that all behaviors result from early childhood experiences, especially conflicts related to sexual insticts

What is a Freudian slip?

a psychic determinism
*example at a boring party
want to say-I'm sorry I have to leave now.
actually say-I'm glad I have to leave now.

What are the two instincts Freud describes?

eros-life-giving/pleasure-producing activities (sex)
thanatos-agression and destruction

Define consciousness.

a personal awareness of internal and external events

How does Freud describe conscious?

level of thoughts. wishes, and emotions you are aware of at the moment

What is preconscious?

level below consciousness which has contents that are waiting to be pulled into consciousness

Define unconscious.

part of the personality that lies outside of awareness yet is believed to be crucial determinant of behavior; Freud=most important

What is the id?

primitive, biological side of our personality
*selfish and has no concern for others or for society
*operates on pleasure principle of seeking immediate gratification

What is the ego?

(aka-executive of personality)
realistic plan for obtaining id
operates on the reality principle
must tolerate delay and frustration b/c of un-immediate gratification

What are the two components of the superego?

conscience-moral part of superego (little voice)
ego ideal-superego's positive side; things that make us proud; motivates us to strive for perfection

Imagine IES like a car...

I and S pull opposite ways-both unrealistic and irrational

E has to make adjustments and find middle ground

LOOK AT figure..and table


What warns the ego that conflict is occurring?


HOw does the ego defend itself when the alarm of anxiety/guilt rings?

defense mechanisms

Define defense mechanism

psychodynamic term used to describe primarily unconscious methods of reducing anxiety/guilt that results from conflicts among the id, ego, and superego

What are erogenous zones?

parts of body to please

Who developed psychosexual stages? before or after Erkison's psychosocial?



What are the five stages in psychosexual development?

oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

Define oral stage

1st stage in psychosexual development in which the MOUTH is the focus of pleasure-seeking activity

What happens if a child's oral stimulation is delayed according to Freud?

personality becomes arrested/fixated

Define fixation.

cessation of further development, resulting in behaviors that are characteristic of the stage of development in which the fixation occurred

What can be shown in adulthood if fixation occurs at the oral stage?

chewing on pencils, overeating, excessive dependency, optimism, gullibility

Define anal stage.

second stage of psychosexual development during which the focus of pleasure is the ANUS and conflict often occurs as efforts are made to toilet-train the child

When does the anal stage occur?

18 months-3 years of age

What occurs in adulthood if a person is fixated at anal-explusive?

overly generous

What occurs in adulthood if a person is fixated at anal-retentive

overly rigid/orderly

Define phallic stage.

3rd stage of psychosexual development in which the genital organs become the focus of pleasure-seeking behavior

When does the phallic stage occur?

4-5years old

Define oedipal complex.

proces that occurs during the phallic stage in which a boy wishes to posses his mother sexually and fears retaliation by his father

Define electra complex.

process that occurs during the phallic stage in which a girl wishes to posses her father sexually

What is castration anxiety?

fear of father's retaliation leading to injury of genitals

leads to boy identifying with father in behavior, values, attitudes, and sexual orientatio

What is successful completion of the Oedipal complex according to Freud?

acquisition of the male sex role

Girls experience penis envy which is...

realization they do not have a penis; anger towards mother and sexual attraction towards father; fantasy that seducing him will give her a penis

When does resolution of the Electra complex occur according to Freud?

represses sexual desires and identifies with her mother

What complex ends up weaker??

woman's superego

Define latency stage.

fourth stage of psychosexual development that extends from age 6 until onset of puberty and is characterized by LOW LEVELS of sexual interest

Define genital stage.

last stage of psychosexual development that begins at puberty and usually leads to normal adult sexual development

p.460=study chart

of psychosexual development stages

What are neo-Freudians?

those who do not accept Freud's emphasis on id and sexual motives but emphasize ego and role of development of personality

Who is one of the best known neo-Freudians?

Car Juang

What is collective unconsciousness?

images shared by all people
images aka archetypes

How are archetypes passed down?


What are four archetypes Jung proposed?

persona-mask of true personality
anima-exhibition of F and Male characteristics
shadow-the animal instinct/dark side of our personal.
self-part of personality that provides unity and stability and attempts to integrate the different aspects of our personality

Who viewed personality disturbances as stemming from basic anxiety we all share?

Karen Horney

What are the three basic adjusting patterns used to reduce anxiety according to Horney?

moving toward people -for affection/approval
moving against people-uses power/control to exploit others
moving away from people-withdraw from the situation

When does a peron's behavior become abnormal in regards to adjusting patterns for anxiety?

when only one pattern is used in all situations

What did Adler arge that a person's primary drive is?

social not sexual

What does an individual strive to overcome?

feelings of inferiority started as a child b/c of inevitable weakness; spend much of our lives striving to compensate for perceived shortcomings

Who was embarrassed by stuttering?


WHo was considered to be the first self theorist? WHY?

b/c placed emphasis on SELF
creative power of the self-shape own destiny (free will)

Who was the first theorist to stress importance of birth order in a determinant of personality?


Why is it hard to study parenting practices on fixations?

Freud did not specify conditions that might lead to fixations; (tests have mixed results)

Freud treated many female cases but developed generalizations mainly to male individuals. also study small group of disturbed individuals whose results may not be applicable to all.


How did Freud listen to his patients?

sat behind the couch and only wrote things down at end of session

Who developed the first to outline a stage of development theory ?


What do behaviorists such as skinner look at in personality?

observable behavior

What do behaviorists believe about free will?

does not exist

What is behavior modification a form of?

Skinner's classical conditioning w/ stimulus and response

Who can B-mod treat?

autistic children, emotional/behavioral disturbed children, phobias, sleep disorders, sexual dysfunctions, depression, etc

The behaviorist approach is strong in...


What is the social learning theory? Who?

theory that learning occurs through watching and imitating the behaviors of others


According to Rotter what are most of the reinforcers we strive to obtain?

social=hugs, praise, attention

What is expectancy? important in whose theory?

notion of likelihood of success or failure

social learning theory of Rotter

What are internals?

people who believe that they can influence their reinforcers via their skill and ability

What are externalS?

people who believe that whether they attain a desired outcome is primarily die to chance or fate

Define locus of control.

whether a person sees his/her behavior as controlled by external factors/locus or internal factors/locus

How is a locus of control measured?

Rotter's I-E Scale

What accounts for differences in I-E ratings?

an individual's learning history, cultural factors
Western=more internal

What is individualisti conception of self?

??? p.465

How do difference in the evaluation of self develop? ex

differences in socialization
Asian-modesty, self-restrain
American-loudest problems get most attn
Japan-nail stands out gets pounded down

What is Albert Bandura known for?

research on observational learning model of aggressive behavior and overcoming phobias

Define reciprocal determinism. Who?

contention that person variables, situation variable, and behavior constantly interact

Environment not only cause of behavior but also the effect of behavior. Give ex.

studying instead of spending time with friends reduces social pressures or invitations to go out

Define self-efficacy.

part of Bandura's theory that states a person's beliefs about his skills and ability to perform effective behaviors; cannot be generalized b/c differ from one behavior to another ∴ not considered a trait

What four sources of info can influence self-efficacy?

1-past performance
2-watching others in similar situations and noting the consequences they experience
3-verbal persuasion (depends on persuader's trust and expertise)
4-phsyiological arousal

Define humanistic psychology.

general approach to psychology associated with Maslow and ROgers that emphasizes individuals' control of their behavior; focus on present and healthy personality; view individual's perception of events as more significant than other theories

What is another term for humanistic psychology?

phenomenological psychologists

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