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Chapter 11

Explain the relationship of antebellum white society with slavery
*Forced labor had been considered essential to the south plantation economy.
* during the last decades before the civil war, the racial divide grew ever more congruent with the split between free and unfree.
the large planters were the dominant class, and no slaveholders were of lower social rank. Planters (defined as those who owned twenty or more slaves) tended to live in the plantation areas of the "cotton belt". In 1860, only one-quarter of all white southerners belonged to families owning slaves
Describe the daily life of the average slave
By the time of the civil, 90% of the souths four million slaves worked on plantations or farms, with the remainder working in industry or in cities.
On large plantations in the cotton belt, most slaves worked in gangs under an overseer. Black "drivers" helped enforce the workday. six days a week. some older children worked in "trash gangs" weeding and yard cleaning.
List the occupations held by slaves
dug ditches, built houses, worked on boats and mills and labored as house servants. preachers, caretakers of children, and healers, especially women. built railroads,
Describe the sociological relationships of the slave family
majority of slave children lived in 2 parent households, and many marraiges lasted for as long as 20 or 30 years. parents shared child-rearing responsibilities( within the limits allowed by the masters). Slaves on farms or small plantations, spouses may reside on other plantations. ties were loose and fragile. responsibility for child-bearing was the mothers, with help of friends and family.
Name the major American slave revolts
the bearing of arms againts the oppressors by organized groups of slaves, was the most dramatic and clear-cut form of slave resistance.
A verginia slave named gabriel prosser mobilized a large band of his fellows to march on Richmond, a violent storm dispersed the army.
1811, louisiana slaves marched on New Orleans brandishing guns, waving flags and beating drums.
Vesey conspiracy.
virginia, runaway slaves killed several whites
Nat turner insurrection.
Describe the various methods of slave resistance in the South
armed resistance. Violent resistance. run away. indirect or passive resistance(worked slowly and inefficiently, feigning illness or injury. Stealing provisions.) sabotage. Neglect animals or mistreat them. set fire to barns. Poisoning the masters food
Explain the role of Free Blacks in the Old South
*free people of color have to register or have white guardians who were responsible for their behavior
* had to carry papers proving their free status.
* in some states they had to obtain official permission to move from one county to the other
Describe the role of the large planters in the Old South
*Set the tone and values for much of the rest of society
** wealthy planters held more than their share of high offices and often exerted a decisive influence on the public policy
Explain how large planters of the cotton kingdom lived
*a planter had to be a shrewd entreprenuer;who kept a watch full eye on the market.
most secure plantation families did aspire to live in the manner of a traditional landed aristocracy. big houses, elegant carriages, fancy-dress balls, and excessive number of house servants.
Discuss the role of the small slaveholders in the Old South
urban merchants or professional men who needed slaves only for domestic service, but more typical were farmers who used one or two slave families to ease the burden of their own labor. Masters lived in log cabins or small frame cottages, and slaves lived in lofts or sheds.
* relations between owners and slaves were more intimate(but were not always treated better).
Describe the economic and social characteristics of the yeoman whites in the Old South
*shiftless poor whites; most were ambitious young men seeking to accumulate the capital to become landowners.
* concentrated in the backcountry where slaves and plantations were rarely seen.
* A distinct group were the genuine mountaineers who lived to high to succeed at farming and relied heavily on hunting, lumbering, and distilling whiskey
* women worked in the garden, made handicrafts, and clothing, and labored in the fields when necessary. Their main source of cash was livestock, especially hogs. Tolerated slavery but opposed abolitionism.
Describe the basis of the proslavery argument
*Enslavement was the natural and proper status for people of African descent.
*Slavery was held to be sectioned by the bible and Christianity
*Efforts were made to show that slavery was consistent with the humanitarian spirit of the 19th century.
Describe the internal slave trade
As slave prices rose and demand for slaves in the upper south fell, the internal slave trade to off. Increasingly, the most profitable bussiness for slaveholders in virginia, kentucky, maryland and the carolinas was selling"surplus" slaves from the upper south to regions of the lower south, where staple crop production was more profitable.This interstate slave trade sent an estimated six to seven hundred thousand slaves in the southwesterly direction between 1815 and 1860
Name the major cash crop in coastal South Carolina & Georgia
Rice and a special long-staple variety of fine cotton had been grown profitably
Name the major cash crop in southern Louisiana
sugar was the cash crop
Explain the role of short staple cotton in the southern economy
*its bolls contained seeds that were much more difficult to extract by hand, and it could be grown almost anywhere south of virginia and kentucky.
*needs 200 frost-free days.
*cotton gin made it more possible to grow and cultivate
Explain the issue of the profitability of slavery
* Profitablity , they argued depended on access to new and fertile land suitable for plantation agriculture, and virtually all such land within the limits of the united states had already been taken up in 1860
*price of slaves rose rapidly it allegedly squeezed many operators
*slavery reached its natural limits it stares becoming so unprofitable