*shiftless poor whites; most were ambitious young men seeking to accumulate the capital to become landowners.
* concentrated in the backcountry where slaves and plantations were rarely seen.
* A distinct group were the genuine mountaineers who lived to high to succeed at farming and relied heavily on hunting, lumbering, and distilling whiskey
* women worked in the garden, made handicrafts, and clothing, and labored in the fields when necessary. Their main source of cash was livestock, especially hogs. Tolerated slavery but opposed abolitionism.