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Texas was a frontier state far from the large cities and markets of the U.S., transportation was slow and expensive, Texas lacked valuable raw materials that industrial centers in the North had.

What three details support the fact that modern manufacturing came slowly to Texas?

John Henry Kirby

Who was known as the Prince of Pines and help make lumber one of the leading industries in Texas at the start of the twentieth century?

company town

Some lumber companies became so large that they each established a _______________ near the property where employees could live, work, shop, worship, and play together.


Employees who lived in company towns were paid in ______

Money that could be spent only at the company store.

What is scrip?

Big Thicket National Preserve

Over the years, the lumber industry leveled many forests, and in 1974, the ___________________ was created to protect more than 84,000 acres of forest.


An open pit from which stone is obtained by digging, cutting, or blasting.

fossil fuel

Nonrenewable source of energy underground

strip mining

Method of mining that strips away layers of earth and rock

Texas Federation of Labor

Organization that worked to support and defend wage earners

Fort Worth

Texas's primary meatpacking center in the late 1800s


Something produced in addition to the main product

tenant farming

Renting land on which one lives and farms

subsistence farming

Families grew all the goods needed with little left over to sell.


When a tenant farmer pays for his land rental with a share of his crop

free land grants

The Texas goverment paid for the contruction of the railroads by issuing ______ _______ _______ along the path of the tracks.


No crop made more money in Texas then:

Labor Union

an association of workers formed to gain better wages and working conditions

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