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AP World Test: Foundations (8000 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.), Part II

STUDY
PLAY
Which policy did both Roman and Han armies tend to implement upon taking control of a foreign land?
Relative autonomy for cooperative local elites
Before 600 C.E., nomadic peoples of the Eurasian landmass
Interacted intermittently with civilizations, often through trade
Why did the western portion of the Roman Empire suffer so much more in the breakdown of Roman imperial unity than the regions of the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium)?
The Eastern Roman world had traditionally been more economically vibrant due to more active trade links with the East
Which of the following is the most accurate statement about ancient Roman trade routes?
Most trade routes were focused around the Mediterranean Sea
Which weakness of the Roman Empire contributed most directly to its collapse?
It was too vast to impose unity and order among all of the regions
After the fall of Rome, the astern half of the empire became renamed the
Byzantine Empire
Which of the following civilizations afforded the greatest degree of citizen input into government policy?
Roman
In Greek civilization, women
were considered inferior to men in both the private and public spheres
Christianity's rise is most accurately viewed as a modification of which of the following?
Judaism
Which of the following terms is NOT associated with classical Greek architecture?
ziggurat
Which neighbouring power posed the greatest military threat over the course of classical Greek civilization?
Persian
The geographic factors presented here led to the development of which highly complex and distinctive civilization by the year 600 C.E.?

- Fertile river valleys
- Isolating mountain ranges
- Dependable monsoon weather patterns
Indian
Which of the following best describes political patterns on the Indian subcontinent in the classical era 1000 B.C.E. to 600 C.E.?
Decentralized rule by local princes punctuated by Maurya and Gupta periods of unification
Which was the most effective unifying force in early Indian culture?
Widely practiced and similar Hindu tradition, including the caste system
Which of the following is unique to the Hindu religion when compared to other major world religions?

I. Belief in some form of afterlife
II. Absence of a central founding figure
III. Distinct denominations
II only
Which major world religion lacks a central founding figure?
Hinduism
Which is NOT a significant continuity Buddhism carried over from its Hindu roots?
Endorsement of caste stratification
How did the Hindu doctrine of dharma impact Indian society?
It fostered the formation of rigid social and economic gorups
Which of the following ancient texts did not serve as a spiritual guide to salvation for those who lived by it?
Analects
Which important idea is credited to intellectuals of the Gupta Empire?
the concept of zero
Which beliefs do Hinduism and Buddhism have in common?
Reincarnation
Which lasting pattern in the history of the subcontinent can we trace to period of the rule of the Maurya and Gupta empires in India?
Difficulty in maintaining centralized imperial rule
Why did long-distance trade flourish in the classical world?
Stable imperial authority provided safe passage for merchants
Buddhism's rise is most accurately viewed as a modification of which of the following belief systems?
Hinduism
Which of the following regions does NOT belong in a list of lands to which Buddhism spread substantially in the centuries following the death of Siddhartha Gautama?
Mesopotamia
Which is the best estimate for the number of castes that have developed in India over the millennium?
thousands
Which of the following texts contain major religious documents that originated in India?

I. Vedas
II. Bhagavad Gita
III. Koran
I and II
Which statement comparing classical Chinese civilization with contemporary Western civilization is most accurate?
China set an enduring pattern of more sophisticated agricultural, metallurgical, and textile production techniques than Western civilization
Which of the following was NOT a tactic used by Shi Huangdi to unify China into one empire?
Employing legalism as a state policy
Which choice best captures the main difference between legalist and Confucian beliefs?
Legalism relied on harsh laws to maintain order while Confucianism depended on rituals, customs, and obligations rooted in family relations
Which of the following was NOT a lasting feature of Chinese civilization formed by the later Zhou era?
Confucian social prescriptions to guide family and state-subject relations
With which early Chinese emperors and dynasties do we most closely associate non-Confucian worldviews?

I. Wu Ti of the Han dynasty
II. Shi Huangdi of the Qin dynasty
III. Empress Wu of the Tang dynasty
II and III
Confucian thought falls most nearly into which of the following categories?
Conservative political philosophy aiming to preserve a hierarchical status quo
Which of the following was NOT an important basis for the higher socioecomic status of the Chinese gentry?
Commonplace advancement of women of the gentry class in the imperial bureaucracy
Which of the following best describes how Chinese imperial elites viewed their civilization in relation to the rest of the world?
China was a unique and superior civilization surrounded by barbarians of one sort or another
Which of the following qualifies as an example of Confucius's "Five Basic Relationships"?
ruler-subject, father-son, friend-friend, husband-wife
Which of the following characteristics best explains the durability of Confucian ideology in Chinese history?

I. Its ability to model large-scale relations between groups in the body politic on familial or personal relationships
II. Its ability to fulfill persistent desires of women for equality in gender relations
III. Its ability to unify a massive imperial bureaucracy around a common set of moral percepts over time
IV. A set of widely agreed-on and accepted essential texts, beginning with the Analects, which formed a common basis for study over time
V. Its exclusively Chinese origin, which meshed well with prevalent notions of the superiority of the "Middle Kingdom" over other civilizations
I, III, IV, and V
Which of the following choices contains belief systems that originated in China?

I. Confucianism
II. Legalism
III. Daoism
IV. Buddhism
I, II, and III
Confucianism differed from Hinduism in that
Confucianism emphasized earthly obligations without regard to concerns relating to afterlife and rebirth
Which is the closest similarity between the Roman Empire and the Han dynasty of ancient China?
Both achieved long periods of centralized government and expanding economies
Which of the following descriptions best summarize the kinds of individuals who have founded a Chinese dynasty?

I. Military genius of peasant origin
II. Regional feudal ruler who defeats rivals in battle
III. Nomadic chieftain
IV. Confucian scholar-gentry
I, II, and III
One major difference between the fall of Han China and that of the Roman Empire was
Dynastic China would return to equal and even greater prominence
In Chinese tradition, the Mandate of Heaven refers to
divine blessing of the rule of an emperor
In which of the following periods of Chinese history did Confucius live?
Late Zhou dynasty "Era of Warring States"
Which of the following is true for both the Qin and Han dynasty?
Imperial authority was strong in the opening years of each
Daoist thought tends to emphasize
harmony with nature
Which of the following was NOT a state concern in Han China?
Expanding educational opportunity for elite women
Daoist conceptions of nature emphasized
harmony and balance
Daoism was never a threat to dynastic rule because
Daoist detachment from human affairs blunted the possibility of political threat
The main pattern in Chinese art established by the close of the classical era was
high levels of craftsmanship and attention to detail work