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Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts (1987, 1990)

Includes specific standards of care for nursing homes and other facilities that receive Medicare and Medicaid funding. Mandates the decreased use of physical restraints. Mandates written policies to identify potential organ donors.

Patient Self- Determination Act

Requires states to provide information about advance directives. Any health care facility receiving Medicare or Medicaid funds give written info to all patients about their rights to make autonomous decisions about medical care that is intended to extend or preserve life.

Occupatinal Safety and Health Act (1970)

Ensures safety for workers in the workplace from exposure to toxic chemicals and other hazardous wastes like asbestos.

Americans with Disabiities Act

Ensures that people with disabilities are not discriminated against and requires employers to find ways to reasonably accommodate people with disabilities so that they can continue to work.

Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993

Entitles federal employees to unpaid leave for family illness.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act HIPAA (1996)

Guards the confidentiality of people. Patients have a right to view their own medical records under this act.

Civil Law

Generally involves the protection of both the person and personal property, is concerned with issues that arise between individuals or businesses. penalties for violations of civil law might include compensation in the form of monetary remuneration and repair of any damages incurred. Considered private law.


A violation of a civil law that results in personal injury or personal property damage.

Intentional torts

Assault, Battery, Abandonment, Character defamation (libel and slander), False imprisonment, Fraud, and Invasion of privacy.

Unintentinal torts

Negligence, Malpractice

Criminal law

Is a type of public law that is designed to protect society(the public) from harmful and criminal acts of individuals.

Statutory law

Or statute law, is the written body of established rules or enactments that have been passed and formalized by the legislative body of government. Statutory law comprises three types of laws: constitutional, enacted, and regulatory law.

Constitutional law

Is a federal law based on the U.S. Constituton and is the most authoritative type of law. Guarantees rights to people.

Enacted law

Second most authoritative type of law. Example Social Security, State's nurse practice act.

Regulatory law

Third most authoritative type law. Also known as executive or administrative law. Provides rules for enacted laws. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services functions in accordance with this type of law.

Case law

Also called judicial law. Based on previous decisions and judgments that have been made in courts of law.

Common law

Law based on common customs, common usage, and the various accumulated judicial decisions and opinions of law courts. Common law may change over time and may not apply to every individual. ruling related to this law might be based on prevailing community standards.

Hildegard Peplau: Interpersonal Relations

Author of Interpersonal Relations in Nursing: A Conceptual Frame of Reference for Psychodyamic Nursing.Theory is called the interpersonal theory. Theory is based on models of verbal interaction seen in psychiatry and psychology.Peplau's nurse-patient relationship is based o the ability of the nurse to use hi or her senses to interpret data. Her model of psychodynamic nursing consists of four phases: (1) orientation, (2) identification, (3) exploitation, and (4) resolution. Six different nursing roles emerge in these phases: stranger,resource person, teacher, leader, surrogate, and counselor. Based on her model, patients are helped to recognize and change patterns that obsrtuct goal achievement.

Madeline Leininger: Culture Care ( Transitional Caring)

Developed the theory of culture care. Theorist with a Ph.D. in anthropology.Was the first nurse theorist to systematically focus on and define the concept of caring as both the basis for nursing practice and the essence of nursing.

Dorthea Orem: Self-care

Theory acknowledges self-care deficit. Orem's three primary types of nursing systems include performing self-care activities for people (wholly compensatory care), assisting people with self-care (partially compensatory care), and educating and supporting peope to help them perform self-care.

Sister Callista Roy: Adaptation

Focused on adaptation and believed that the goal of nursing was to promote adaptative responses. Believed that people must adapt to changing internal and external environment to be healthy. Roy focused on two primary human subsystems of adapting to stimuli: regulatoer mechanisms or responses and cognator mechanisms or responses.

Imogene King: Goal Attainment

Developed the goal attainment model. King believed that goals are met through the interpersonal nurse-and-client transaction in all social settings. Her model is classified as interpersonal model because of her nurse-patient focus.

Betty Neuman: Health Care Systems

Theory is based on systems theory. The focus of nursing is on identifying potential stressors and patient's response to them; nurses should asses risk factors and help strengthen lines of defense by various interventons.

Martha Rogers: Energy Fields

Theory based on concept of energy fields.Theory supports various alternative therapies like therapeutic touch. Rogers defined people as unitary human beings who have a continuous relationship or interaction with the environment through an exchange of energy. Her theory is often called the science of unitary human beings.

Jean Watson: Caring (Eastern Metaphysical)

Theory supports various alternative therapies like therapeutic touch, yoga, and various types of guided imagery. Esatblished the Center for Human Caring at University of Colorado. Author of Nursing:Human Science and Human Care; A Theory of Nursing. Considered caring to be the essence of nursing practice.

Virginia Henderson: Developmental

Coauthored Textbook of thee Principles and Practice of Nursing. Her theory is similar to Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Erik Erikson's stages of growth and can be thought of as a developmental needs theory. Definition of the role of the nurse: " The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery ( or the peace of death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will, or knowledge, and to do this in such a way as to help gain independence as rapidly as possible."

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