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a dialect difference that involves pronunciation


a group in the rigid social hierarchy of Hinduism


a word that clearly looks or sounds like one in another language to which it is related historically


a pidgin language that has become a mother tongue


a variation within a language


changes and errors in how a language is used that accumulates over time


the study of the origin and history of words


the strictest adherence to traditional religious beliefs


a line around places where speakers use a linguistic feature in the same way


a language unrelated to its neighbors


a set of words, plus their pronunciation and methods of combining them that is used and understood as communication with a group of people

language family

languages that are related by descent from a common protolangage

liberation theology

the belief putting the problems of overcoming poverty at the heart of Christianity

Lingua Franca

a second language held in common for international discourse


belief in the existence of only one god

Official language

the language in which legal documents are kept in a country


the study of writing or a system of writing

polyglot state

a country that grants legal equality to two or more languages


to try to convert others to your religious beliefs

root language or protolanguage

the common ancertor language to any group of several of today's languages


a lifetstyle or policy that deliberately ignores or excludes religious considerations


a belief in the power of mediums who characteristically go into autohypnotic trances, during which they are thought to be in communication with the spirit world


Islamic teachings that are often incorporated into law in Islamic countries

Speech community

a group of people who speak together

standard language

the way any language is spoken and written according to formal rules of diction and grammar

syncretic religion

a religion that combines two or more traditional religious practices


violent acts intended to frighten and to intimidate for politcal ends a civilian population beyond the immediate victims


a form of government where a church rules directly


the study of place names


one of a group of people considered so low that their status is below the formal structure of the Hindu Caste system


the belief that Jews should have a homeland of their own

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