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Networking Principles with Kenneth Mayer Chapter 14


Network's programs, data, services, devices, connections soundness


How consistently, reliably a file or system is accessed (by authorized personnel)

How are Integrity and Availability compromised?

Security - breaches, natural disasters, malicious intruders, power flaws, human error

Unintentional User Error

Harm data, applications, software configurations, hardware

Intentional User Error

Administrators must take precautionary measures to protect network

Malware program or code

Designed to intrude upon or harm system and resources

Malware Examples

Viruses, Trojan horses, worms, bot


Replication program intent to infect more (through network connections, exchange storage devices)

What are destructive programs often called?

Virus - do not meet strict criteria of a virus .. ex: trojan horse

Types of Malware

Categories based on location and propagation: boot sector viruses, macro virus, file-infector virus, worm, trojan horse, network virus, bot

Malware Characteristic

Making malware harder to detect and eliminate ex. encryption, stealth, polymorphism, time dependence
- can have more than one characteristic


used by viruses, worms, Trojan horses; thwart antivirus program's attempts to detect it


malware hides itself to prevent detection; disguise themselves as legitimate programs


change characteristics every time they transfer to new system; use complicated algorithms, incorporate nonsensical commands

Time Dependence

programmed to activate on particular date; can remain dormant, harmless until date arrives; logic bombs: programs designed to start when certain conditions are met

Malware Protection

Not just installing any virus-scanning program or anti-malware software
Requires: choose appropriate anti-malware program, monitoring network, continually updating anti-malware program, education users

Anti-Malware Software

Malware leaves evidence: some detectable only by anti-malware software

User viewable malware symptoms

unexplained file size increases
significant, unexplained system performance
unusual error messages
significant, unexpected system memory loss
periodic, unexpected rebooting
display quality fluctuations

Minimal Anti-Malware Functions

Detect malware through signature scanning (comparing file's content with known malware signatures)
Detect malware through integrity checking (comparing current file characteristics against archived version)
Detect malware by monitoring unexpected file changes
Receive regular updates and modifications
Consistently report only valid instances of malware (heuristic scanning: find malware-like behavior)

Anti-malware software implementation

Dependent upon environment's needs

Key to Anti-Malware Software

Deciding where to install software

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