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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Terms in this set (102)
I. Key People/Groups
1) King Louis XVI:
the king of France during the last years of the regime and the early stages of the Revolution. He was arranged to have a marriage with Marie Antoinette. This was a political engagement intended to strengthen the bond between the Habsburg and Bourbon dynasties. His education was not designed to prepare him to rule France. He was also indecisive, timid and had a poor grasp of affairs of state. Louis inherited France's debt. He supported the American colonists in order to oppose Great Britain. His financial minister Jacques Necker levied new taxes on the nobility and Louis was left to deal with their wrath. He was then forced to call the Estates General. During the Revolution, Louis XVI was encouraged by nobles to use force to restore the old regime, so he called troops to Versailles. The royal family was forcibly removed from Versailles. They then tried to flee and were captured. This ruins any ties or hope of reconciliation between the monarchs and the people. Louis and Marie were executed by guillotine.
2) Queen Marie Antoinette:
The daughter of the Austrian empress Maria Theresa and wife of King Louis XVI. She spends a lot of money during a time of immense debt. She becomes hated by the people and is executed during the revolution.
Top of the third estate Lawyers, doctors, artisans, merchants Somewhat wealthy, but did not have the same privileges as the nobility. Educated Outvoted 2:1 in Estates General Paid taxes Representatives had ideas of Montesquieu and Voltaire
4) Nobility (which estate) -
5) Peasants (which estate) -
6) Estates General:
a meeting that was called by Louis XVI after the third estate was not happy with how he was handling issues, specifically financial issues. Didn't end up helping the third estate much because each estate had 1 vote, and the first two usually overruled the third estate. This can only be called by the king and had not been called in 175 years.
7) Abbe Sieyes:
leading revolutionary who published "what is the third Estate?" a pamphlet that everyone in france talked about. In it he describes how much the third estate does for france and how they have no say or voice in politics. He was also a chief conspirator who plotted to put Napoleon in power to create stability.
) General Lafayette:8 The French hero who fought for American Independence in the Revolutionary War and led the French¢ Revolution.
9) Olympe de Gouge:
Women's rights activist who wrote Declaration of Rights of Women but it was rejected by the National Assembly.
Nobles that fled to bordering countries (for political reasons) and plotted to bring back the Old Regime. Many fled to Great britain, Italy, and across the Rhine to Germany.
Known as the "Incorruptible," Robespierre. A powerful Jacobin who would execute all who opposed the Revolution. He wants total focus on the Revolution and not outside threats. He helped start the Reign of Terror and wanted to continue it even when Danton thought it had gone too far. Robespierre believed that Danton was opposing the Revolution and killed him. He was arrested and killed.
One of the most powerful members of the Jacobins section of the National Convention. He helped start the Reign of Terror to execute those who were disloyal to the Revolution, but when he felt that it was accomplished, he was executed because Robespierre thought he was disloyal. He does not agree with all the chaos and killing. He said they should focus on getting rid of foreign enemies first.
13) Radicals -
Wanted to get rid of the king, set up a republic, and institute far-reaching changes. After the invasion of Prussian and Austrian armies, which created mass uprisings in Paris, a group of radicals seized control of the city government and set up an organization called the Commune.
14) Moderates -
Sided with either conservative or radical, depending on the situation
15) Conservatives -
They did not want the government of France to change. They wanted the king to have limited authority.
16) Duke of Brunswick:
The Prussian commander. He vowed to destroy Paris and punish the revolutionaries if any harm came to the royal family.
17) The Commune:
Set up by a group of radicals that seized power after Austrian/Prussian invasion. Members threatened the Legislative Assembly with violence unless it abolished the monarchy. The Commune accurately accuse King Louis XVI of plotting with foreign monarchs to overthrow the Constitution. They coerced the Legislative Assembly to vote to suspend the office of the king. At this point, the Commune ruled Paris while the Legislative Assembly tried to govern France.
Want to get rid of king, set up a republic, and institute far-reaching changes. Views became progressively radical as time went on. Led by Robespierre, they also started the Reign of Terror. One of the groups of delegates of the National Convention.
less radical, was opposed by the Jacobins, from South Western France. One of the groups of delegates during the National Convention.
20) Jean-Paul Marat:
Marat was the author of the infamous newspaper " Friend of the people."Marat was extremely radical and put forth his rhetoric in a malicious fashion. He continually made rumors that instilled hatred into the readers. His writings incited many riots and movements. He was assassinated by Charlotte Corday, a woman from Normandy greatly influenced by Girondist propaganda. The Revolutionary Tribunal sent her to the guillotine.
The National Convention included Jacobins who were extreme radicals and wanted reforms that could benefit all classes of society, including the sans-culottes. They were led by Jean-Paul Marat.
23) Horatio Nelson:
An Admiral who led a British fleet that defeated a combined French and Spanish fleet off the coast of Spain. He was killed in battle, but not before he had almost destroyed the French and Spanish fleet.
24) Czar Alexander I-
Czar Alexander reigned from 1801 to 1825. Czar Alexander allied Russia and France. However, he found that Napoleon's continued advancement through Europe was threatening and alarmed him. He waged a war against Napoleon's French Army when they invaded Russia. During the Polish-Saxon issue, he wanted Poland from Prussia in return for Saxony. During his reign, Russia had a lot of land and power.
25) Louis XVIII-
Brother of Louis XVI. He was briefly in charge of France after Napoleon lost his Russian Campaign. Napoleon quickly took back control after gaining an army since the French did not like the monarch.
26) Duke of Wellington-
Commanded the combined armies of Prussia, Great Britain, and the Netherlands during the Battle of Waterloo.
27) Talleyrand -
French foreign minister, sent to represent France at the congress of Vienna. He urged the principle of legitimacy. At the congress, he was excluded by the greater powers because of Napoleon's actions, just as the minor powers of Europe were as well. He stood up for the minor countries and tried to rally them against the larger powers. suggested a compromise to the Poland/Saxony issue.
Chief minister of Austria and chairman of the Congress of Vienna; also chief architect of the policies drawn up by the Congress. He led the Congress of Vienna because Austria had fought with France the longest. He believed that an absolute monarchy was the only way to ensure stability. He also thought that the excessive killing and revolt of the French Revolution was unnecessary and that it lost sight of the original goal. Additionally, he said that humans were advancing too fast. The rapid changes resulted in rash decisions because society was not wise or smart enough to deal with the changes. An example of this was the revolution because the people did not know how to lead a proper revolt.
29) King Frederick William
30) Lord Castlereagh
32) King Ferdinand VII
33) Jacques Necker-
French finance minister.Popular amongst French people. Publicly says that the government's duty is to make sure there is enough bread. Advises the king to tax the first two estates but his advice is disregarded.
34) Committee of Public Safety-
developed by the National Convention to help direct the army in crushing all foreign invaders, adopted the conscription (the draft) This was the first time that the country called upon the talents and abilities of all people to fight a war.
35) Royal and Catholic Army-
An Army made up of counterrevolutionaries. Battled the French in the Battle of Vendee.
a) Holy Alliance:
Purpose was to get each country to adopt a rule based on Christian principles. Created by Czar Alexander I. All European rulers signed besides Great Britain because of its constitution, the pope because Czar Alexander is orthodox, and the Turkish Sultan who was not Christian.
b) Quadruple Alliance
c) Concert of Europe:
wanted to spread peace throughout Europe and have balanced power (status quo)
III. Key Documents
a) Declaration on the Rights of Man
(Assured the rights to personal liberty,which could only be lost after a fair trial) In the eyes of the law, everyone is equal Abolished previous unfair privileges of the first and second estate Freedom of speech, press, and religion. Promised, "liberty, equality, and fraternity" Fair trials Equal right to hold public office. Influenced by the Bill of Rights, writings of Rousseau and other philosophers, and the Declaration of Independence.
b) Declaration for the Rights of Women:
A group of women led by Olympe de Gouges wrote this document of women's rights, but the National Assembly rejected it. They did not believe that women were equals of men.
c) Declaration of Pillnitz:
Marie Antoinette's brother, Emperor Leopold II of Austria, and King Frederick William II of Prussia issued the Declaration of Pillnitz. This declaration invited European rulers to help Louis XVI restore the monarchy to its full power. Louis XVI favored war because he hoped that foreign armies would defeat the French army and restore his authority.
d) The Civil Constitution of the Clergy of 1790:
This law stated that people in the parish and dioceses would elect their clergy. This law was made under the National Assembly.
e) Tennis Court Oath-
After being locked out of the estates general, the third estate went to a nearby tennis court and vowed they would not cease until a constitution was drafted and approved. This was the beginning of the National Assembly.
IV. Key Terms
a special privilege of the Second Estate that states that the wealth, land, and titles are passed down to the oldest son.
tax that the church (1st Estate) instilled on the peasants
the sections of France. The provinces were abolished and 83 states called departments were made.
d) Universal manhood suffrage-
Declared that every man could vote, regardless of whether he owned property. Although voting freedom was allowed, only 10% of the population voted. Additionally, it did not grant women's right to vote.
Drafted by the Committee of Public Safety, it stated that all men between 18 and 45 were obliged to serve in the military. This gave the French Army an invigorated, patriotic attitude. This was created because a lot of the nobility had fled (émigrés) these nobles were all high-ranking officers.
counterrevolutionaries were made up of mostly the clergy. They supported the Old Regime. Started raising small armies, most notably the Royal and Catholic army.
g) coup d'etat-
seizure of power by force, how Napoleon came to power
Napoleon's voting procedure that asked for approval of his new constitution. People could only vote yes or no, and could not make changes. Many people voted yes anyway.
i) scorched-earth policy-
burning or destroying crops and everything else that could be of value to invaders. Russia implemented this tactic when they were invaded by Napoleon. This resulted in the troops being forced to retreat and led to the (first) downfall of Napoleon.
one's love for their country rather than their native region... people thought of themselves as French with a country and ideas worth fighting for. Many people in Napoleon's army did not have nationalism because they were forced to fight and came from conquered territories.
a compensations to other nations for damages that had been inflicted upon them
a decision by the Congress of Vienna that stated all former ruling families should be restored to their thrones this was urged by Louis XVIII
a period of time after the Napoleonic Wars in which authorities wanted to return to the conditions of earlier periods. They were extreme conservatives.
extended principles of the American and French revolutions with their ideals of individual rights and the rule of law
Known as the "National Razor," the guillotine was seen as a humane way of execution.
V. Key Events
a) Storming of the Bastille
b) War outside of France
c) The Great Fear
d) The Reign of Terror-
The Reign of Terror was a systematic program created to suppress all opposition to the Revolution. Ran by the Jacobins, they handed down harsh sentences for merely suspicion. The trials were quick. It targeted all people who opposed the Revolution, regardless of social class.
e) Napoleon taking power (from consulate to emperor)
f) The Continental System:
Napoleon ordered this blockade of the British isles and forbade anyone in the French Empire or its allied states to trade with the British. It was called this because Napoleon had controlled so much of the continent. Napoleon did this because the British inflicted defeat upon him. He believed that if they lost their foreign trade and its profits, they would be willing to make peace on his terms. The British responded with their own blockade, They ordered ships of neutral countries, putting these nations in an awkward position of who to side with. The British blockade damaged American trade, which led to the War of 1812 between Great Britain and the U.S.
g) The Peninsular Campaign
h) France and Russia at war
i) The Hundred Days
j) Congress of Vienna (meeting & 4 main points)
k) Elba (location of event)-
Elba is an small mediterranean island. This was the location where Napoleon was first ostracized/ sent to prison.
l) St. Helena (location of event)-
Napoleon was imprisoned here the second time he was defeated. This was ultimately the sight of his death.
VI. Governments of France (know the main documents, laws, and events that took place under each government)
The time period before 1789 (before the revolution started) is known as the Old Regime. During the Old Regime King Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette ruled France and the king had all power over the country. While the country was falling into a great debt and starvation, King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette constantly through parties, ate feasts every night, and Marie always spent insanes amounts of money on jewelry and clothes. The society of France used to be organized into three estates. The first estate was the Roman Catholic clergy which was only 1% of the population, and the second estate consisted of nobles and was less than 2% of the population. Lastly, the rest of the population of France, which was approximately 97%, made up the third estate. Bourgeoisies were the top of the middle class and following them were the merchants, manufacturers, doctors, lawyers, et cetera. The people in the third class were the ones who paid all of the taxes in France, as well as give part of their income to the church. The First and Second Estate, the clergy and nobles, although they were the wealthiest, didn't have to pay taxes; instead they got many privileges that the third estate, the peasants and bourgeoisie, did not get. King Louis XVI did not do anything to solve this problem within France. All of King Louis XVI's careless actions lead to France falling into an even worse state than it was in, and to the third estate revolting against the monarch to improve the country. King Louis enjoyed the privileges of being king, but did not take on the responsibility.
b) National Assembly
June 17, 1789 The Third Estate proclaimed itself the National Assembly because it had as many representatives as the First Estate and Second Estate combined and it wanted the three states to meet together with their representatives voting as individuals. At an Estates-General meeting on May 5, 1789, Louis XVI instructed that the delegates followed the old way of each estate separately voting, but the representatives of the Third Estate said that the Estates-General represented the French people, not three classes. Since Louis failed to take action after this the Third Estate proclaimed itself the National Assembly. Later on, the National Assembly asked the delegates of the two other estates to join them, but then the king locked the representatives of the third estate of their meeting place. They met on a nearby tennis court and, on June 20, 1789, they made a pledge called the Tennis Court Oath. This made the representative declare that they would not adjourn until they have written up a constitution for France and seen it adopted. Because of this Louis XVI sent in troops to Paris and Versailles, where the representatives met. The people thought they were trying to drive out the National Assembly by force, so the people of Paris fought back. Many people of the National Assembly felt that they could deal with the revolutionary violence by removing the oppression and injustice that produced it. They did this by abolishing the last remnants of feudalism in France, repealing the tithe, and ending special privileges for the First and Second Estates. Next, they enacted The Declaration of the Rights of Man that stated that men are born equal and remain equal before the law, as well as stating and defining the principles that became the slogan of the French Revolution: liberty, equality, fraternity (to everyone but women). The National Assembly passed more than 2,000 laws aimed at correcting abuses, setting new government, and creating departments. They also called for the election of all local officials.Land of the Catholic church was seized and sold to the public. The proceeds could pay off public debt and the wealthier peasants, who had been renting the land, bought a good portion of it. The government compensated the church by paying the salaries of the priests and bishops. The pope refused to allow this. Some clergy became émigrés. Passed Civil Constitution of the Clergy, which stated that people in the parishes dioceses could elect their clergy.
c) Legislative Assembly In 1791,
the constitution written by the National Assembly was written that limited the power of the king (could not proclaim/block laws) and set up a new government known as the Legislative Assembly, which was divided into three branches-- executive, legislative, and judicial. Consisted of wealthy men who owned considerable property. They now held the most political power in France, but did not give women the right to vote or run for office. The executive branch was weak; the legislature was powerful and inexperienced, and it was elected by a minority of the population.Three factions sat in the Legislative Assembly. They were the conservatives, moderates, and radicals.King Louis XVI heard that the constitution would limit his power and he told émigrés to plot with foreign governments hoping that they would overthrow the new governemnt in France and return it to the Old Regime. After this, on the night of June 21st 1791, King Louis XVI and his family tried to flee France but got caught in Varennes (a town near the border of France). In Varennes, the King was arrested and sent back to Paris. After this foolish act, the citizens did not trust the king and they started planning a republic. This event was turning point showing that the revolution was really happening. The Legislative Assembly described in the Constitution went into effect in September of 1791. The Legislative Assembly became very unorganized and lasted less than a year.
d) National Convention
With the monarch suspended, France needed a new constitution and the Legislative Assembly voted itself out of existence in/around 1792. The delegates of the National Convention were elected by universal manhood suffrage. In September 1792 the delegates were divided into three main groups, and none supported the king. The Girondists, who many of them came from the department of the Gironde in southwestern France, the Jacobins, members of a radical political club, and a group who had no definite views. The National Convention governed France for three years, and proclaimed the end of the monarchy and the beginning of a republic, and its job was to suppress disorder and revolt at home and fight a war against foreign invaders. The National Convention tried Louis XVI on charges of plotting against the security of the nation and ended up beheading him. The French armies ended up wanting to liberate all the peoples of Europe from oppression,
The Revolutionary Tribunal-
(A court established by the Committee of Public Safety to try "enemies" of the Revolution)
To meet the danger of invading countries, which were alarmed by France's ideas to export the ideas of Revolution by force of arms, The Committee of Public safety, a committee established by the National Convention to direct the army in crushing all foreign invaders, adopted conscription, which drafted all men, not just nobles, and sparked nationalism. But this created problems in France and counterrevolutionary actions began.
Reign of Terror-
The Reign of Terror, began which was a systematic program to suppress all opposition
Many reforms despite violence
Codifying French laws
Provided national system of public education
Abolished slavery in French colonies
Adopted metric system of weights and measures
New calendar with colorful names that reflected the seasons
National Assembly drafted another constitution in 1795 Universal manhood suffrage died so only property owners could vote New constitution established an executive branch of five directors. Pleased neither radicals nor conservatives Weak, corrupt, selfish, the five wealthy directors constantly fought amongst themselves and could not agree on how to solve any of France's problems so economic problem got worse. The directory became as unpopular as the Old Regime, because it repeated history by going bankrupt, but it prepared the way for military dictatorship.
France was in need of good leadership, so Napoleon was the only option with his strong military background and "genius." (Attended military school, became General) Had the ability to move troops quickly and mass forces at critical points on battlefield In 1804 Napoleon was declared emperor. Ambitious, vain, domineering personality Napoleon instituted a Roman like government: naming himself first consul He led France to conquer in Europe and was defeated in Russia Started... (go more in depth) Plebiscite Schools Banking
a) The date of the revolution (July 14th, Seventeen Eighty Nine)
VIII. Key Concepts
a) Problems leading up to France's Revolution:
Financial issues, which were only worsened by The Old Regime
b) Comparing and contrasting the American and French Revolution-
Link to class doc
c) The differing political views that emerge from the revolution
(conservative, radical, moderate, reactionary, etc.)
d) Napoleon's power and its effect on Europe
e) Napoleon's legacy
f) Violence during the revolution
g) New rights for the common man (reforms)
h) The effects of the Congress of Vienna
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