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Regional Identities and the Twenty-First Century

Jean Monnet

First president of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) which was formed in 1950. This French administrator is also known as the "Father of Europe." ECSE start out as a collaborative effort between France and West Germany, by 1952 the ECSC was a multinational organization including Italy, Beligium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg.

Treaty of Maastrict

Formed in 1991, proposed a monetary union and paved the way to the creation of a European Central Bank (ECB) and a single European currency, the Euro, introduced in 1999, and fully operational by 2002. Ratified in 1993, the treaty converted the European Economic Community (EEC) into the European Union (EU).

Wole Soyinka

Nigerian Nobel Laureate author. Awarded nobel in literature 1986. Said in 1990's, "South africa is our dream, Rwanda our nightmare."

Laurent Kabila

A rebel who overthrew the Congo dictator Mobuto and conquered Congo with his allies the Rwandan Tutsi and allies from Uganda in May 1997. He was assasinated in 2001.


Institutional Revolutionary Party founded in 1929 with the purpose to bring democracy to Mexico. Became the longest ruling party in the world when it lost the presidential election in 2000 for the first time since it was founded.


The North American Free Trade Association, created by Canada, Mexico, and US in 1994. It is an agreement to end all tariffs and trade barriers among them.

B. P. Mandal

He was tasked by the prime minister in 1980 to take on the caste system and create an affirmative action program to have a more equitable representation of the scheduled caste and other backward class (OBC) in the central administration and public sector. Commission recommended 27% of the position be reserved for the OBC.


Other Backward Class - consisted of some 3743 castes and made up about 52% of the nation's population.

"wandering Jews" of the Middle East

When Israel declared itself a state in 1948 in about one-half ofnthe land of Palestine, many palestinians fled the new state, becoming known as this.


Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries - oil-rich Arab countries - In 1973, rationed and embargoed the export of oil to the US & Western Europe to demonstrate their anger at Western support of Israel and their power over the world's oil reserves.


European Coal and Steel Community


European central bank


European Economic Community


European Union


African National Congress


Rwandan Patriotic Front


National Action Party


Institutional Revolutionary Party


Worker's Party


world trade organization

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