36 terms

Open Standard/Open Source

•What are standards?
•In the technology environment, a standard is a framework of specifications that has been approved by a recognized organization or is generally accepted and widely used throughout by the industry
What are the Pro's of Standards
•Allows for efficient communication
•Ensures product/service quality and interoperability
What is a De facto standard
a specification that became popular because everyone uses it, such as PDF, not because it was agreed upon by all parties
Name an example of De Facto Standard
does De facto standard = open standard
•Wide use ≠ Open standard
What is Proprietary standard?
•Proprietary standard: a standard owned by a corporation and its use is licensed by it owners, typically for a fee. The standard can be changed at will
Name an example of Proprietary standard?
•Example: game console and games - Star Wars, the Old Republic only runs on Windows
wHO IS Bruce Perens
What are open Standards
In other words: an open standard is a standard that is not encumbered by a patent, does not require proprietary software, and can be utilized by anyone without cost
Easy accessibility for all to read and use
Developed by a process that is open and can be participated by anyone
•No control or tie-in by any specific group or vendor
New standards developed should be royalty free (technology or products produced using open standards is not necessarily free)
What are the benefits of opens standards?
•Less chance of being locked in by a specific technology and/or vendor
•Makes interoperability possible
•Users can then choose the system based on quality, user-friendliness, price, and other factors (for example, you are free to choose any browser that reads HTML)
•Allows for cross-platform application uses - Web pages can be read on Macs and PCs all the same
•Provides better protection against the possibility of the file format becoming obsolete in the future
•Provides users more flexibility and freedom to choose the software they would like to use
•Good for companies
• drive innovation: HTML, URL, HTTP , and other open standards developed by W3C are free for all to use without having to obtain any permission, giving for users and companies (such as eBay and Amazon) full license to explore new uses
•The openness allows users to have options, fosters collaboration and creation
What are the open standards of the web protocols
•Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) - allowed for the creation of WWW
What are the open standards of the web pages
•Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) from the W3C and the Internet Organization for Standardization (ISO) - allowed
anyone to upload Web pages
•Markup language:
•Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), governed by W3C - allowed anyone to create Web pages that are readable by all browsers
What are 2 types of Metadata?
•The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set
•MARC - MAchine-Readable Cataloging (MARC21)
What is Dublin Core?
•The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set is a formal standard containing a set of 15 generic elements for describing electronic resources
•Under the governance of Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (http://dublincore.org/)
•The metadata standard makes it possible for applications to share and link data on the Web
What is MARC?
•MAchine-Readable Cataloging (MARC21) - a data format and set of related standards used for the storage and exchange of bibliographic records and related information in machine-readable form
•Governed by the Library of Congress (http://www.loc.gov/marc/)
•Makes it possible for different library systems to read the same record, and for a library record to be moved online
The goal of the initiative is to develop and promote interoperability standards that will facilitate efficient dissemination of digitally available content across various repositories - to make sure data within different repositories can be shared
What is OAI-PMH ?
•Protocol for metadata harvesting (OAI-PMH): defines a protocol for harvesting metadata records from repositories that uses different systems; in other words, the protocol enables the sharing of metadata between services (think repository interoperability)

OAI-PMH gathers data, it does not search across repositories to retrieve resources
What is metradata Harvesting?
•Harvest - the gathering together of metadata from a number of repositories into a combined data store
What open source elements does OAI-PMH use?
•Uses Dublin Core (metadata format), HTTP ( to send request) and XML (to form response)
Why is OAI-PHM good?
•Makes it possible to gather metadata from various sources into one database so that services can be provided based on this centrally harvested data
What is the difference between Data providers and service providers?
•Data providers administer systems that support the OAI-PMH as a means of exposing metadata Example: National Library of Australia Digital Object Repository

•Service providers user metadata harvested via the OAI-PMH as a basis for building value-added services Example: Google
Designed for identifying content objects in the digital environment, DOI is a persistent identifier for a digitally published article along with its location
•DOI name is an identifier, not a location, of an entity on digital network assigned by DOI Registration Agencies
•Information about a digital object may change over time, but its DOI name will remain the same - DOI is an actionable (there is definite syntax within the identifier), interoperable, persistent link
Managed by the International DOI Foundation (IDF)
Why is DOI important
•Information about a digital object may change over time, but its DOI name will remain the same - DOI is an actionable (there is definite syntax within the identifier), interoperable, persistent link
What is an example of DOI?
Example: ACM database
What is OpenURL
•A user may come across an article in an indexing database (such as LISA) where the full text is not available. The full text may be available in another database (such as ACM) that the user has access to. The indexing database generates an OpenURL and sends it to the organization's OpenURL resolver. The resolver decodes the OpenURL, recodes it into a query and send to other electronic resources that the users can access to search for full text documents. The search result is then presented to the users in a list.
What is an example of OpenURL
•Example: Simmons Library's Article Now feature
Who creates the Open URL protocol?
A NISO (National Information Standards Organization) protocol for interoperability between an information resource and a service component
What is open source?
A particular way of developing, implementing and distributing software: The source code should be open for everyone to see, and the writing of the code is done in a collaborative, open way

Not cost-free, but free to use, free to modify, and free to share
What are the criteria of Open Source? (8)
•Free redistribution: the license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources; nor shall it require royalty or other fee for such sale
•Source code: there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code, or that it must be included in the distributed program. The source code should also be allowed to be distributed in compiled form
•Derived works: the license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software
•Integrity of the author's source code: the license may restrict source code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of patch files with the source code for the purpose of modifying the program at build time
•No discrimination against persons or groups, and fields of endeavor
•Distribution of license: the rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties
•License must not be specific to a product
•License must not restrict other software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software
•License must be technology-neutral
Name 3 examples of Open Source
•GNU: http://www.gnu.org/ - a free Unix-like operating system
•Linux Ubuntu: http://www.ubuntu.com/ - another free Unix-like operating system
•GIMP: http://www.gimp.org/ - a free image manipulation program (think a less-polished cousin of Photoshop)
•Mozilla Firefox: http://careers.mozilla.org/en-US/ - a free Web browser
•Evergreen: http://open-ils.org/ - a free library management software
What are the 4 freedoms of Open Source
•Often has lower implementation and support costs (online community support that could actually be more timely and effective)
•Lower costs means the librarians and systems administrators can try it out without having to deal with vendors
•Open source software can be more freely customized according to need
•Provides more support options - not tied to the vendors
•Dramatically reduce the amount of vendor lock-in
•No fear of vendor going out of business
What are the disadvantages OF OPEN SOURCE
•May have a steeper learning curve
•May not support proprietary software applications
•May require more technical ability
•May not be compatible to all hardware
•May not have a single source for technical support and documentation