23 terms

Introduction to Cells

Chapter 1
STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

Use of Microscope
Reveals tiny structures and details that cannot be seen with the unaided eye.
Organic Compounds
Formed by carbon and hydrogen atoms; carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Diffusion (Definition)
Movement of particles from a region of high concentration to an area with low concentration.
Three Parts of Cell Theory
All living things are made up of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, new cells come from existing cells.
Osmosis
Diffusion of particles/molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal.
Passive Transport vs. Active Transport
Passive and Active Transport both refer to the movement of molecules across the membrane; but, ACTIVE transport requires energy to be used by the cell to complete the transport, while PASSIVE transport DOES NOT require the cell to use energy to transport.
Function of Nucleus
Directs all the cells activities.
Function of Cell Membrane
Controls what enters and exits the cell, protects and supports cell, and helps cells communicate with other cells.
Function of Vacuole
Stores materials such as water, salts, proteins and carbohydrates.
How Substances Enter Cells
Substances that can move into and out of a cell do so by means of one of two processes: passive transport or active transport.
Element
Any substance that cannot be broken down into a simpler substance.
Resolution vs. Magnification
Magnification makes images/organisms/objects. Resolution shows more details of an image/organism/object.
Function of Cell Wall
Provides protection and support for a plant cell.
Facilitated Diffusion
Movement of specific molecules/particles across cell membranes through protein channels.
Enzymes
Substances found in protein that speed up chemical reactions.
Two Differences Between Animal Cells and Plant Cells
Plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplast and animal cells do not have either.
Function of Nucleus
Directs all the cells activities.
Function of Mitochondria
Makes energy for the cell from food.
Function of Golgi Apparatus
Modify, sorts and packages proteins and other materials from the ER to distribute to other cell parts.
Endocytosis
A process in which the cell membrane changes shape and engulfs the particle.
Use the Three Points of Cell Theory to Explain How Humans and Bacteria are Similar
*Both are composed of cells.
*Both have cells as their basic unit of structure and function.
*Both use cells to reproduce/make new cells.
Describe Two Methods of Active Transport
1. Endocytosis: When a cell changes shape and enfulfs a particle.
2. Exocytosis: When a cell changes shape to allow particle to leave a cell.
Explain Why Raising Temperature Speeds Up Diffusion
Raising the temperature causes particles to move faster.