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99 terms

PHYS LAB FINAL- Jillian Aldridgr

STUDY
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metabolism is a broad term referring to
all chemical reactions that are necessary to maintain life.
catabolism is enzymatically controlled processes in which
substances are broken down to simpler substances
anabolism is process in which
larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones
enzymes are proteins that
catalyze (increase the rate of) other chemical reactions
Most catabolic reaction are accompanied by
a net release of energy
maintaining body temperature is critically related to
metabolism
Hormones involved in Anabolism
insulin, sex steroids, growth hormone, and thyroxin
Examples of anabolism
glucose to glycogen, fattys acids to triglyceride, and amino acids to protein
Catabolism hormones
glucagon, epinephrine, glucosteroids, growth hormones, and thyroxin
Examples of Catabolism
glycogen to glucose, triglycerides to fatty acids, protein to amino acids
Lean body mass and fat tissue
weight the same but look different
BMI calculation
BMI=weight (lb) X 703/ Height (in2) (english)
BMI=weight (kg)/height (m2)
(1) weight kg=weight lb/2.2
height m= height inches/39.4
Interpret BMI
<19=underweight
19-25=normal weight
25-30=over weight
30-35=obese
35-40=severe obesity
>40=morbidly obese
Nomogram is the ratio weight/height2 the tis read from a
centrals cale after a straight edge is place between height and body weight
skin fold calipers measure the
thickness of the subq fat layer at specific body sites. The measurements are then compared to norms for total body fat.
hydrodensiometry is
underwater weighing
It is one of the most
accurate methods for determining body fat
it is very
expensive and inconvenient
Bioelectric impedance current measures
resistance (fat vs. lean tissue)
Percent body fat is derived
indirectly
Central obesity is associated with
cardiovascular disease, diabetes 2, hypertension, stroke, demetia....
Determination of central obestiy
AHA says above 1.0 for men and above 0.8 for women is associated w/ central obesity (apple shape) below these numbers there is a reduced risk which is pair
how to measure waist to hip ratio
while standing, measure your waist at your navel- record in cm.
while standing measures hips at the greatest circumference and record this value in cm
divide the waist circumference by the hip circ to get the waist-hip ratio
heigh to waist measurement
when waist measurement is more than half the height you are at risk
waist measurement increased risks when
the waist measure of a male exceeds 40 inches (102 cm) and that of female exceeds 35 inches (88cm)
suppose two people have the same height and weight but person A has significantly high bioelectrical impedance than person B. How do the BMI and percentage of body fait compare in these 2 people? explain
....
a college student who gained unwanted weight wishes to lose 20 pounds before graduation ceremonies, 10 month away. By how many kilocalories per week would the student have to reduce intake or increase expenditures to lose the 20 pounds (lb= 3500kcal)
...
how many kilocalories per day would the student had ego lose over the 20 month periods. is this a practical weight loss program...
explain
substance on which a catalyst works is a
substrate
biologic catalyst; protein in nature is a
enzyme
increases the rate of a chemical reaction without becoming part of the product is a
catalyst
provides a standard of comparison for test results is a
control
three characteristics of enzymes
it is not used up and does not change shape in a reaction, it speeds up a reactions, don't know another one
enzymes of the digestive system are classified as hydrolyses...which is what?
it is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bound
salivary amylase organ, site of action, substrate, ph
salivary glands, oral cavity, starch, 6.7-7.0
trypsin organ, soa, substrate, ph
panceras- smal intestine-proteins-8.0
lipase organ, soa substrate, ph
pancreas, small intestine, fats, 7.4
end product of digestion of these foods
protein-,carbs, fats-glycerol n fatty acids
amino acids, glucose, fat- glycerol and fatty acids
people on a strict diet to lose weight begin to metabolize stored fats at an accelerated rate. How does this condition affect blood ph.
decrease blood ph and makes it acidic
secretin and gastrin and produced by
cells in duodenum wall
secretin target organ is
pancreas
gastrin target organ is
stomach
cholecystokinnin produced by/target organ
neurons and gallbladder/pancreas
page 608
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150 pounds and 10% fat means
you have 15 bounds of fat and 135 pounds of lean body mass
understanding body fat percentage calculations
.....
define reflex
rapid, predictable, involuntary motor response to stimuli-mediated over nural pathways called reflex arc
five essential components of reflex arc
receptor, sensory neuron, intergration center, motor neuron, effector
what is importance of reflex testing
assessing the condition of the nervous system. distorted/exaggerrated may indicate degernation of portions of the nervous system
reflexes classified as somation
crossed extensor reflex, corneal, gag, patellar, plantar, abdominal, and achilles
simple stretch reflexes
achilles and patellar
superficial cord reflexes
abdominal and plantar
autonomic reflexes
pupillary light reflex and ciliospinal
cord mediated reflex
abdominal and plantar
somatic reflexes in with the higher brain center participates
corneal and gag
can the stretch reflex be elicited in an animal where the brain has been destroyed
yes as along as the animal has been killed recently. if there is ATP left in the muscles cells for contractions and in the nerve cells to conduct action potentials the reflex is intact.
trace the reflex arc blah
blah
stimulus is something causing
or regarded as causing a response
adaptation of sensory receptors
changing of a sensory receptor to better suit an organisms environment
why is it advantageous to have pain receptors that are sensitive to all vigorous stiumuli
for protection
why is nonadaptibility of pain receptors important
if ppl get adapt to pain they daily to recognize serious condition like heart attack...pain is only sensation that is also a symptom
why is it dangerous if you didn't have cutaneous organs
bc without them you could touch something w/out cowing your doing harm (burn
referred pain
- pain perceived at a location other than the site of painful stimuli
the eyeball is wrapped in adipose tissue...whats the function?
it's fat tissue and protects the eyeball and works as a cushion
why does one have to blow nose while crying
a percentage of tear is release into nasolacrimal duct then goes to nasal cavity. secretes fluids
what muscle dilates the pupil
dilator pupillae
would you expect the pupil to be dilated in what circumstances and constricted in when
dim light when observing distant objects
constricts in bright light when focusing for near vision
the intrinsic eye muscles are controlled by
autonomic nervous system
aqueous humor
fluid filling the anterior segment of the eye
sclera
white of the eye
optic disc
part of the retina that lacks photreceptors
ciliar body
modification of the choroid that controls the shape of the crystalline lens and contains the cilary muscle
scleral venous sinus
drains the aqueous humor
retin
layer containing rods and cones
vitrous humor
subtance occupying the posteriors segment of the eye
choroid
forms bulk of the heavily pigmented vascular layer
ciliary body and iris are the
smooth muscle structures
aqueous humor, cornea, lens, and vitreous humor are the
light bendings media of the yes
cornea
window on the world- anterior continuation of the sclera
sclera
composed of tough white opaque fibrous connective tissue
refraction
light bending
ability to focus for close (less than 20 ft) vision
accommodation
normal vision
emmetropia
inability to focus well on close objects (farsightedness)
hyperopia
nearsightedness
myopia (can be diagnosed in doctors office)
blurred vision due to unequal curvatures of the lends/cornea
astigmatism
medial movement of the eyes during focusing on close objects
convergence
in farsightedness the light is focused ______ the retina
behind
the lens requires to rest myopia is the _______ lens
concave
the near point increase with age because the ______ of the lens decreases as we get older
flexibiity
a convex lens like that of the eye produces an image that is upside down and reversed from left to right call
a real image
why is vision lost when hitting a blind spot
has no photoreceptors and odes not respond to light
presbyopia
normal,presently unavoidable degeneration of the accommodation power of the eye assoc w/ aging
to which wavelengths of light do the three cones tips of the retina respond maximally
blue pigments (430mm), green pigments (530mm), red pigments (560 mm)
why do we see a great range of colors but only 3 cones exist?
interpretation of the intermediate colors of the visible light spectrum is a result of overlapping input from more than one cone type
difference between binocular and panoramic vision
binocular vision there is a considerable overlap between the visual fields of the left and right eye. panoramic vision the left and right eyes see in two different directions resulting in a panoramic field of view
describe how sound of different frequency of pitches are differentiated in the cochlea
the cochlea is a conical organ wrapped on itself to form a spiral. any vibration that travels through it will move until it reaches a pt where the dimension of the cochlea is related to the frequency, then it will resonate and stimulate sensory cells that are located there
nystagmus
a rapid, involuntary, oscillatory motion of the eyeball-usually side by side
vertigo
sensation of dizziness and rotational movement when such movement is not occurring or has ceased