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Lecture notes


Two thirds of the body's fluid volume is in the ?? compartment


?? fluid is the fluid outside of cells

plasma interstitial

?? and ?? fluid are the two subdivisions of the extracellular compartment

60 40

??% of body weight is water which is about ?? L of water

40 25

??% of this fluid is intracellular, which is about ?? L of water


?? L of extracellular fluid is interstitial fluid


? L of extracellular fluid is plasma


Water is the ?? solvent


?? are inorganic salts, all acids and bases, and some proteins


?? are solutes that like glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea


Water moves according to ?? gradients

distinct pattern

Each fluid compartment has a ?? ?? of electrolytes

sodium chloride

In extracellular fluids ?? is the chief cation with ?? as the major anion

potassium phosphate

In intracellular fluid, ?? is the chief cation, and ?? is the chief anion

sodium chloride

Intracellular fluid is low on ?? and ??


Normal saline solution (isotonic) is ??% saline

osmolality ADH

Increases in plasma ?? trigger hypothalamic thirst centers and release ???


Water lost through respiration, sweating, and defecation is called ?? losses


???? ml is the normal daily intake of water


???? ml is the normal output in urine daily

osmoreceptors hypothalamus

?? in the ?? control the release of ADH

posterior pituitary

Hypothalamus stimulates the ?? ?? to release the ADH

sodium osmolality

Increased ?? concentrations in plasma and increased ?? trigger the hypothalamus to increase BP


The hypothalamus increases BP by increasing blood ??


Release of ADH cause the urine to be ??

hypotonic hydration

?? ?? is water intoxication or cellular overhydration which can be caused by renal insufficiency or over ingestion of water


?? is atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space causing tissue swelling


?? pressure causes the cellular issues for hypo and hyperhydration


Salts enter the body by ?? and are eliminated is the normal fashion


Aldosterone retains ?? in the body

adrenal glands

Aldosterone is a steroid hormone manufactured in the ?? ??


?? alert the brain to changed in BP

dilate rise sodium water

To reduce BP, the brain causes the afferent arterioles to ?? causing the GFR to ?? and ?? and ?? output increases

pressure diuresis

Increased urine output caused by increased BP is called ?? ??


Since sodium concentration in blood determines blood volume, the baroreceptors can be considered ?? receptors

increase NaCl

Estrogen caused BP to ?? by enhancing ?? reabsorption by renal tubules


Progesterone ?? sodium reabsorption


glucocorticoids enhance ?? of sodium


hyperkalemia and hypokalemia can ?? electrical conduction in the heart

potassium leaves

When hydrogen ions shift into a cell, a corresponding ?? ?? the cell

cortical collecting ducts

K+ balance is controlled in the ?? ?? ?? by changing the amount of K+ secreted into the filtrate

potassium ion secretion

Aldosterone stimulates ?? ?? ?? by principal cells

Na K

In cortical collecting ducts, for each ?? reabsorbed, a ? is secreted


Cl follows ?? in the body under normal conditions


Few Cl ions are reabsorbed when body is in ??

7.4 7.35

Normal arterial blood has a pH of ?? where venous blood has a pH of ??? because CO2 is acidic


?? is when arterial blood has a pH above 7.45


?? is when arterial blood has a pH lower than 7.35


?? acid results from protein breakdown


?? acid results from glucose breakdown

ketone bodies

?? ?? result from the breakdown of fat


Hydrogen ions are released when ?? combines with CO2 for transport


?? acid is turned into uric acid in the urine


Normal urine has a pH of ??


Most food is ??


Most veggies are ??

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