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56 terms

Fluids electrolytes and acid base balance 1

Lecture notes
STUDY
PLAY
intracellular
Two thirds of the body's fluid volume is in the ?? compartment
extracellular
?? fluid is the fluid outside of cells
plasma interstitial
?? and ?? fluid are the two subdivisions of the extracellular compartment
60 40
??% of body weight is water which is about ?? L of water
40 25
??% of this fluid is intracellular, which is about ?? L of water
12
?? L of extracellular fluid is interstitial fluid
3
? L of extracellular fluid is plasma
universal
Water is the ?? solvent
electrolytes
?? are inorganic salts, all acids and bases, and some proteins
nonelectrolytes
?? are solutes that like glucose, lipids, creatinine, and urea
osmotic
Water moves according to ?? gradients
distinct pattern
Each fluid compartment has a ?? ?? of electrolytes
sodium chloride
In extracellular fluids ?? is the chief cation with ?? as the major anion
potassium phosphate
In intracellular fluid, ?? is the chief cation, and ?? is the chief anion
sodium chloride
Intracellular fluid is low on ?? and ??
.9
Normal saline solution (isotonic) is ??% saline
osmolality ADH
Increases in plasma ?? trigger hypothalamic thirst centers and release ???
insensible
Water lost through respiration, sweating, and defecation is called ?? losses
1500
???? ml is the normal daily intake of water
1500
???? ml is the normal output in urine daily
osmoreceptors hypothalamus
?? in the ?? control the release of ADH
posterior pituitary
Hypothalamus stimulates the ?? ?? to release the ADH
sodium osmolality
Increased ?? concentrations in plasma and increased ?? trigger the hypothalamus to increase BP
volume
The hypothalamus increases BP by increasing blood ??
concentrated
Release of ADH cause the urine to be ??
hypotonic hydration
?? ?? is water intoxication or cellular overhydration which can be caused by renal insufficiency or over ingestion of water
edema
?? is atypical accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space causing tissue swelling
osmotic
?? pressure causes the cellular issues for hypo and hyperhydration
ingestion
Salts enter the body by ?? and are eliminated is the normal fashion
sodium
Aldosterone retains ?? in the body
adrenal glands
Aldosterone is a steroid hormone manufactured in the ?? ??
baroreceptors
?? alert the brain to changed in BP
dilate rise sodium water
To reduce BP, the brain causes the afferent arterioles to ?? causing the GFR to ?? and ?? and ?? output increases
pressure diuresis
Increased urine output caused by increased BP is called ?? ??
sodium
Since sodium concentration in blood determines blood volume, the baroreceptors can be considered ?? receptors
increase NaCl
Estrogen caused BP to ?? by enhancing ?? reabsorption by renal tubules
decreases
Progesterone ?? sodium reabsorption
reabsorption
glucocorticoids enhance ?? of sodium
disrupt
hyperkalemia and hypokalemia can ?? electrical conduction in the heart
potassium leaves
When hydrogen ions shift into a cell, a corresponding ?? ?? the cell
cortical collecting ducts
K+ balance is controlled in the ?? ?? ?? by changing the amount of K+ secreted into the filtrate
potassium ion secretion
Aldosterone stimulates ?? ?? ?? by principal cells
Na K
In cortical collecting ducts, for each ?? reabsorbed, a ? is secreted
sodium
Cl follows ?? in the body under normal conditions
acidosis
Few Cl ions are reabsorbed when body is in ??
7.4 7.35
Normal arterial blood has a pH of ?? where venous blood has a pH of ??? because CO2 is acidic
alkalosis
?? is when arterial blood has a pH above 7.45
acidosis
?? is when arterial blood has a pH lower than 7.35
phosphoric
?? acid results from protein breakdown
lactic
?? acid results from glucose breakdown
ketone bodies
?? ?? result from the breakdown of fat
bicarbonate
Hydrogen ions are released when ?? combines with CO2 for transport
nucleic
?? acid is turned into uric acid in the urine
6.0
Normal urine has a pH of ??
acidic
Most food is ??
alkaline
Most veggies are ??