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Gen Bio II, Animal Biology at St. Scholastica

Just about Everything You need to know for Dr. Thoemke's Final Exam
STUDY
PLAY
Eyespots
Don't Function in Vision
Ganglia
Centralized Sensory Structures (Cephalization)
Gastrovascular Cavity
Functions in Both Digestion and Circulation
Reproductive Polyp
Bud off to produce medusa by asexual reproduction
Anthoza
1) Sea Anomones
2) Most Corals
3) Sea fans
Cuboza
Box Jellies and Sea Wasps
Scyphozoa
Jellies and Sea nettles
Hydrazoa
1)Portuguese man-of-wars
2)hydras
3)obelia
4)some corals
Classes Of Phylum in Cnidaria
1)Hydrozoa
2)Scyphoza
3)Cuboza
4)Anthozoa
Cnidocyte
Organelles uniques to Cnidarians, functions to explode outward to extend the thread.
Nematocyst
Contains stinging thread, can penetrated body wall of prey or entangles prey.
Thread
Extend in response to touch or chemosensation
Medusa
Motile flattened, mouth and tentacles down free-floating or contact.
Polyp
Cylindrical form adhere to substrate and extend tentacles upward, non motile
Mesoglea
Gelatinous matrix between inner and outer cell layers
Cnidarian Body Plan
Contains a sac with a central digestive compartment, the gastrovascular cavity
Gastrovascular
"Digest-circulation"
3 Major Clades of Bilateral Animals
1) Lophotrochozoa *
2)Ecodysozoa
3)Deuterosome
Invertebrates
Lack a back bone
Account for about 95% of known animal species
Economically, ecologically and medically important
Phylum
(plural -phyla)
Grouping of organisms with a similar basic 'body plan'
Species
A group of organisms that can potentially breed with one another
Convergent Evolution
Independent evolution of structures that are similar between species that are not closely related
Spongocoel
Internal Cavity of sponge
Pore of Sponge
Where water enters sponge
Osculum
Exit of sponge tissue
Choanocyte
Flagellated cell with a collar of protoplasm at the base of the flagellum
True Tissues
Specialized cells that function as a unit and are separated by a membrane
Amoebocytes
Digest food, differentiate into other cell types
-Transport nutrients to other cells
-Produce skeletal cell types
Spicules
small, spike shaped particles of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide that make up the skeleton of some sponges
Epidermis
Outer cell layer
Mesophyl
Gelatinous layer between inner and outer layers of sponge
2 Phyla of Sponges
1) Calcarea
2)Silicea
Gastrodermis of Cnidarians
Inner cell layer
Function in digestion
Cnidarians
Range of sessile or motive forms
-Lack cephalization, and noncentralized nerve net
Sea Wasp
Cnidarian that secretes lethal poison
Hermaphrodite
Eggs and sperm produced in one organism
Suspension Feeders
Capture food suspended in water
-Most are hermaphrodites
Indeterminate of __________ Development
Deutersosome-Cell fate is specified in embryo. Isolate one cell and it will divide developing an embryo
Radial of _________ Development
Deuterosome- Cleavage planes are parallel or perpendicular to vertical axis
Determinate of ________Development
Protosome- cell fate specified easily
isolate one cell and it divides and never produces embryo
Spiral of ________Development
Protosome-Planes of cell division are diagonal to vertical axis of embryo
Deutersome
Anus develops from Blastopore
Protosome
"First mouth"
Mouth develops from Blastopore
Events in Embryogenesis
1) Cleavage
2) Coelom formation
3) Blastopore
Soft Bodied Coelomates
Non-compressible fluid in coelom; provides structural support (act as skeleton)
Acoelomates
Lack a body cavity
Pseudocoelomates
Body cavity formed from mesoderm and endoderm
* Fully functional body cavity
Coelem
fluid-filled or air filled body cavity lined with mesoderm
-Acts as cushion for internal organs
Coelomates
Possess a "true" coelem - forms a mesoderm
Diploblastic
Lack Mesoderm
-Cnidarians (jellies, coral, hydra),
-having 2 germ layers: ectoderm and endoderm.
Triploblastic and animals
Animals with bilateral symmetry
- Contain all 3 germ Layers
(Flatworms, Arthropods, Vertebrates)
Mesoderm
Between Ectoderm and Endoderm in embryo
-Gives rise to muscle and most organs between digestive tract and outer covering.
Endoderm
Innermost layer in embryo, lines digestive tract and gives rise to digestive organs (liver and lung)
Ectoderm
Outermost layer in embryo, gives rise to outer covering of animal (skin) and also central nervous system
The 3 Germ Layers (Inner to Outer)
1) Endoderm
2) Mesoderm
3) Ectoderm
Gastrulation
Inward folding of the early embryo due to cell migration.
-Embryo layers develop here
Tissues
Collections of specialized cells that are separated from other tissues by membranes
Cephalization
Sensory Structures at anterior
-Brain
Body Symmetry
-2 sided
-Dorsal and ventral sides
-Left and Right
-Anterior and posterior sides
-Cephalization
-Triploblastic tissue organization
Radial Symmetry
-Dorsal and Ventral Sides
-Lack Left and right
-Lack Anterior and posterior
-Lack Cephalization
-Can be divided into equal but opposite halves by a plane through the central axis
Characterizations of Animals
Body Plans
*Symmetry
*Tissue organization
*Type of body cavity
*Protostome or Deuterostome Development
"Body Plans"
Morphological and Developmental traits
Collar cells
flagellated cells that push water through a sponge
-Found in animals, never plants
3 Lines of evidence that choanoflagellates are closely related to animals
1)Morphological similarity between collar cells of choanoflagellates
2) Molecular Genetic Data- rRNA sequences of choanoflagellates and animals
3) Include cnidaria, flatworms, echinoderms
Choanoflagellates
Unicellular Colonial Eukaryote
Animal Kingdom
Great Diversity of living and extinct species
about 99% of all species that lived are extinct
2 Protective Mechanisms of Monogeneans and Trematodes
1) Tough Outer Covering
2) Molecular Mimicry
Molecular Mimicry
Mimic surface proteins of host cells to avoid immune detection
Trematode Example
Blood Fluke
Blood Fluke
>200 million people world wide infected with these. -Pain, Anemia, dysentary
Tapeworms
Parasitic Flatworm, infects vertebrates.
Lack a mouth and gastrovascular cavity.
Sexual Reproduction-produces 1000's of eggs in proglotids
Rotifers
freshwater, marine, or terrestrial
Animals because they are multicellular & possess specialized organs
-alimentary canal
-pseudocoelomates
Parthenogenic
Females reproduce without males, unfertilized eggs develop as females
Cycliophora
Only one species, lives only on mouthparts of lobsters. -Males inject sperm into females while they are still developing in mother.
Ectoproct
Resemble clumps of moss
Contain exoskeleton with pores & lophophore extends through pores.
-Marine and freshwater
Lophophore
Ciliated tentacle
Brachiopods
Have a hinged shell with dorsal & ventral side
-Marine
-Sessile, suspension feeders attach to sea floor via stalk
Molluscs
Snails, Slugs, oysters, clams, octopuses, squid

-Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial

Soft bodied coelomates that secrete a hard shell, Both sexes, occasionally hermaphroditic
Mollusca Classes
-Polyplacophora
-Gastropoda
-Bivalvia
-Cephalopoda
Chitons (Polyplacophora)
Marine
cling to rocks at low tide
Shell with 8 dorsal plates
no distinct head
Gastropods
3/4 of living molluscs are these
Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial
head and symmetrical body
possess coiled shell usually
Bivalves
Marine and freshwater
reduced head
suspension feeders
mostly sessile
Cephlapods
Only molluscs with closed circulatory system (blood vessels separate from lymph vessels)
Most intelligent invertebrate
marine
active predators
Well developed sensory organs and complex brain
Closed Circulatory System
Blood vessels separate from lymph vessels
Open Circulatory System
Circulatory fluid, open ended vessels bathe tissues and organ
Annelids
Segmented Worms
Marine, freshwater, and terrestrial
coelomates
Classes Of Annelida
1) Oligochaeta
2) Polychaeta
3) Hirudinea
Ogliochaetes
Earthworms and aquatic species
hermaphroditic
hydrostatic skeleton
circulatory system and nervous system
Chaeta
bristles made of chitin
Polychaetes
More chaeta per segment than ogliochaetes
mostly marine
well developed head, circulatory system and nervous system
Leeches
mostly freshwater, also marine and terrestrial
predators that feed on other invertebrates
Parasites with blade like jaws to pierce skin or secrete digestive enzymes to make hole in skin.
hirudin
Anitcoagulent
prevents blood from clotting
recombinent hirudin
used during surgery to dissolve/prevent blood clots.
Ecdysozoans
Most species rich animal group
cuticle covering
cuticle shed thru molting
Phyla of Ecdysozoans
1)Nematoda
2) Arthropods
Nematodes
(round worms) round smooth body; have a tube within a tube body plan, separate mouth and anus; no circulatory system; some free living, some parasite
Caenorhabditis Elegans
Single hermaphrodite
>300 progeny produced
Life cycle of 3 days (Egg-adult)
transparent body
have human homologs
Arthropods
A group of organisms that have jointed appendages, an exoskeleton, bilateral symmetry, and reproduce sexually; insects, arachnids, millipedes and cenitpedes, and crustaceans
Subphyla Of Arthropoda
1) Cheliceriformes
2) Myriapoda
3) Hexapoda
4) Crustacea
Cheliceriforms
have clawlike feeding appendages (pincers or fangs)
Myriapods
Thought to be one of the first animals to inhabit land
terrestrial
milipedes (herbivores) and centipedes (carnivors with poison claws)
Insects (Hexapoda)
most species rich subphylum
terrestrial, marine, and freshwater
mate only once a lifetime
have spermatheca
Spermatheca
specialized organ for storing sperm, allows production of fertilized eggs for entire lifespan.
A key to success in Insects
Flight
Crustaceans
have highly specialized appendages
gas exchange in smaller species thru cuticle, larger species have gills
marine and freshwater
Echinoderms
"spiny skin" thin epidermis covering endoskeleton
slow moving or sessile, marine
deuterosome
Chordates
-notochord
-dorsal, hollow nerve cord
-pharyngeal slits
-muscular post anal tail
*Same embyronic features in humans.
Classes of Echinodermata
1) Asteroidea
2)Ophiurodea
3) Echinoidea
4) Crinoidea
5) Holothuroidea
6) Concentricycyloidea
Tunicates (Urochordata)
Adults are sessile
swimming larvae
undergo complex metamorphoses
resorb tail, notochord and nervous system degenerates
Lancelets (cephalchordata)
rare marine animals
Buried in sea floor with anterior end exposed for feeding
Traits of Chordates
Notochord
Dorsal, hollow nerve core
Pharyngeal slits or clefts
Muscular post anal tail
Notochord
longitudinal flexible rod between digestive tube and nerve cord, provides skeletal support
Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
develops from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube dorsal to notochord

nerve cord develops into central nervous system: brain and spinal cord
Pharyngeal Slits or Clefts
connect pharynx to outside of body
Pharyngeal slits functions
-Suspension- feeding structures in invertebrate chordates
-gas exchange in vertebrates
-develop into parts of ear, head, and neck
Muscular, Post Anal Tail
tail posterior to anus
contains both skeletal and muscle elements
function in propelling force in aquatic species
Hox genes
conserved in most organisms
function in spatial organization of body
Craniates
Chordates that have a head
possess -skull
-brain
-eyes
Derived Characteristics of Craniates
Craniates= 2 clusters of Hox genes
while Lancelets and tunicates= only 1
Neural Crest
Unique to Craniates
group of cells located near dorsal margins of neural tube
Aquatic Craniates
Pharyngeal clefts evolved into gill slits
Craniates have....
-A heart with at least 2 chambers
-Red blood cells with hemoglobin
-Kidneys
Hagfishes
Most basal surviving Craniate
cartilaginous skull
lack jaws and vertebrae
axial rod of cartilage derived from notochord
Lampreys
most basal living lineage of vertebrates
jawless vertebrates
cartilaginous skeleton
Gnathostomes
Vertebrates with jaws- that evolved from skeletal rods of pharyngeal slits
Oviparous
eggs hatch outside mother's body
Ovoviviparous
Embryo develops w/in uterus and receives nourishment from egg yolk
Viviparous
embryo develops w/in uterus and is nourished through a yolk sac from mother's blood
Osteichthyes
include bony fish and tetrapods
possess a bony endoskeleton
ray finned Fishes
possess fins supported by long flexible rays modified for maneuvering and defense
Lobe fins
have muscular pelvic and pectoral fins
Lineages of Lobe Fins
-Coelacanths
-lungfishes
-tetrapods
Tetrapods Adaptions
-Four Limbs and feet with digits
-Ears for detecting airborne sounds
Amphibian
"Both ways of Life"
refers to metamorphosis of aquatic larva into terrestrial adult
Amniotes
tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg
Extraembryonic membranes
-amnion
-chorion
-yolk sac
-allantois
Reptiles
-scales create a waterproof barrier
-lay shelled eggs on land
ectothermic
absorb external heat as main source of body heat
Endothermic
generate their own body heat through metabolism
Boxlike shell
upper and lower shells fused to vertebrae clavicles and ribs
Turtles
Inhabit deserts, ponds, lakes, and sea
boxlike shell
Leatherback
largest living turtle
Birds
Adapted to flight
wings with keratized feather
-lack a urinary bladder
-females have 1 ovary
-both sexes gonads reduced in size
-lost teeth
Contour Feathers
Adapted/used for flight
Downy Feathers
lack hooks; barbs trap air for insulation
Mammals
-Have mammary glands to produce milk
-hair
-larger brain than other vertebrates of same size
-Differentiated teeth
Synapsids
amniotes distinguished by a single hole in each side of skull
Lineages of Mammals
-monotremes
-marsupials
-eutherians
Monotremes
small group of egg-laying mammals
Echnida and Platypus
Marsupials
Embryo develops w/in placenta in mother's uterus
born very early in development
develops in pouch
Eutherians
complete embryonic development within uterus joined to mother through placenta
Chordates
Bilaterian animals belonging to deuterostomia clade
Migrating Neural Crest Cells
multipotent - can become many different cell types.
Lateral Line System
Acquired by Gnathosomes, allows animal to see vibrations.
Chrondrichthyans
have a skeleton composed primarily of cartilage
(Sharks, rays, and skates)
Spiral Valve
digestive system that increases absorptive surface of digestive tract
Actinopterygii
class of ray finned fishes, includes most aquatic osteichthyans
Tetrapods
Gnathostomes that have limbs
Archenteron
blind pouch
Blastopore
An indentation that leads to the formation of archenteron
Metazoans
organisms that lack true tissue
Eumetazoans
organisms that possess true tissue
Ventral Nerve Cords
nerve cords running down the ventral "belly" (flat worms)
Proglotid
Individual section of a tapeworm
Hydrostatic skeleton
Pseudoceolom filled with fluid
Chambered Nautilus
Only living cephlapod with an external shell
Hemolymph
Fluid in open circulatory system