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50 terms

Set 1

Heather+Ben=Amazing
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Activation energy, delta G double dagger
The amount of energy (in joules) required to convert all the molecules in 1 mole of a reacting substance from the ground state to the transition state
Anabolism
The phase of intermediary metabolism concerned with the energy-requiring biosynthesis of cell components from smaller precursors
Archaebacteria
One of the five kingdoms of living organisms; includes many species that thrive in extreme environments of high ionic strength, high temperature, or low pH
Eubacteria
One of the five kingdoms of living organisms. Eubacteria have a plasma membrane but no internal organelles or nucleus
Catabolism
The phase of intermediary metabolism concerned with the energy-yielding degradation of nutrient molecules
Chiral center
An atom with substituents arranged so that the molecule is not superimposable on its mirror image
Configuration
The spatial arrangement of an organic molecule that is conferred by the presence of either (1) double bonds, about which there is no freedom of rotation, or (2) chiral centers, around which substituent groups are arranged in a specific sequence. Configurational isomers cannot be interconverted without breaking one or more covalent bonds
Conformation
The spatial arrangement of substituent groups that are free to assume different positions in space, without breaking any bonds, because of the freedom of bond rotation
Cytoskeleton
The filamentous network providing structure and organization to the cytoplasm; includes actin filaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments
Endergonic reaction
A chemical reaction that consumes energy (that is, for which delta G is positive)
Enthalpy, H
The heat content of a system
Entropy, S
The extent of randomness or disorder in a system
Equilibrium
The state of a system in which no further net change is occurring; the free energy is at a minimum
Eukaryote
A unicellular or multicellular organism with cells having a membrane-bounded nucleus, multiple chromosomes, and internal organelles
Exergonic reaction
A chemical reaction that proceeds with the release of free energy (that is, for which delta G is negative)
Free-energy change, delta G
The component of the total energy of a system that can do work at constant temperature and pressure
Genome
All the genetic information encoded in a cell or virus
Metabolism
The entire set of enzyme-catalyzed transformations of organic molecules in living cells; the sum of anabolism and catabolism
Metabolite
A chemical intermediate in the enzyme-catalyzed reactions of metabolism
Mutation
An inheritable change in the nucleotide sequence of a chromosome
Nucleus
In eukaryotes, a membrane-bounded organelle that contains chromosomes
Prokaryote
A bacterium; a unicellular organism with a single chromosome, no nuclear envelope, and no membrane-bounded organelles
Standard free-energy change, delta G degree
The free-energy change for a reaction occuring under a set of standard conditions: temperature, 298K, pressure 1 atm, and all solutes at 1M concentration
Stereoisomers
Compounds that have the same composition and the same order of atomic connections, but different molecular arrangements
Systems biology
Biology-based inter-disciplinary study field that focuses on the systematic study of complex interactionsin biological systems, thus using a new perspective (holism versus reductionism) to study them.
amphipathic
Containing both polar and nonpolar domains
bond energy
The energy required to break a bond
buffer
A system capable of resisting changes in pH, consisting of a conjugate acid-base pair in which the ratio of proton acceptor to proton donor is near unity
condensation
Formation of a bond accompanied by the release of the elements of water from the joining atoms
conjugate acid-base pair
A proton donor and its corresponding deprotonated species; for example, acetic acid (donor) and acetate (acceptor)
dissociation constant (K{a})
(1) An equilibrium constant (K{d}) for the dissociation of a complex of two or more biomolecules into its comjponents; for example, dissociation of a substrate from an enzyme. (2) The dissociation constant (K{a}) of an acid, describing its dissociation into its conjugate base and a proton
equilibrium constant (K{eq})
A constant, characteristic for each chemical reaction; relates the specific concentrations of all reactants and products at equilibrium at a given temperature and pressure
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation
An equation relating the pH, the pK(a), and the ratio of the concenrations of the proton-acceptor (A<->) and proton-donor (HA) species in a solution
hydrogen bond
A weak electrostatic attraction between one electronegative atom (such as oxygen or nitrogen) and a hydrogen atom covalently linked to a second electronegative atom
hydrolysis
Cleavage of a bond, such as an anhydride or peptide bond, by the addition of the elements of water, yielding two or more products
hydrophilic
Polar or charged; describing molecules or groups that associate with (dissolve easily in) water
hydrophobic
Nonpolar; describing molecules or groups that are insoluble in water
hydrophobic interactions
The association of nonpolar groups, or compounds, with each other in aqueous systems, driven by the tendency of the surrounding water molecules to seek their most stable (disordered) state
hypertonic
Describes a solution of higher osmolarity than that from which it is separated by a semipermeable membrane
hypotonic
Describes a solution of lower osmolarity than that from which it is separated by a semipermeable membrane
ion product of water (K{W})
The product of the concentrations of H<+> and OH<-> in pure water: K{W} = [H<+>][OH<->] = 1 x 10<-14> at 25 degrees C
isotonic
Describes a solution of the same osmolarity as that from which it is separated by a semipermeable membrane
London forces
London Dispersion Forces, named after the German-American physicist Fritz London, are weak intermolecular forces that arise from the interactive forces between temporary multipoles in molecules without permanent multipole moments. London dispersion forces are also known as dispersion forces, London forces, or induced dipole-dipole forces
micelle
An aggregate of amphipathic molecules in water, with the nonpolar portions in the interior and the polar portions at the exterior surface, exposed to water
osmolarity
Osmolarity is the measure of solute concentration, defined as the number of osmoles of solute per liter of solution (osmol/L). The osmolarity of a solution is usually expressed as Osm (pronounced osmolar), in the same way that the molarity of a solution is expressed as M (pronounced molar). Whereas molarity measures the number of moles of solute per unit volume of solution, osmolarity measures the number of moles of solute particles per unit volume of solution
osmosis
Bulk flow of water through a semipermeable membrane into another aqueous compartment containing solute at a higher concentration
pH
The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration of an aqueous solution
pK(a)
The negative logarithm of an equilibrium constant
titration curve
A plot of the pH versus the equivalents of base added during titration of an acid
van der Waals interactions
The attractive or repulsive force between molecules (or between parts of the same molecule) other than those due to covalent bonds or to the electrostatic interaction of ions with one another or with neutral molecules