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Catabolism makes ATP, releases energy and where digestion decomposition should happen in the body
All metabolic processes in the cell, energy from food is used to make ATP and energy is transferred by moving electrons
Oxidation reduction (redox) reaction; to oxidize means to lose electron to positive and always occurs in pairs; to reduce means to gain electrons
destruction breakdown of sugar and is the 1st step in carbohydrate metabolism beginning with sugar
NADH production, each suagr is oxidized, NAD is reduced, and electron carrier that stores energy for later
Further breakdown of pyruvic acid and is in cytoplasm if there is no O2 present
further breakdown of pyruvic acid if O2 is present, pyruvic acid enters mitochondria and gives up an electron
Broken down into CO2 (waste) and Acetyl group, reduces NAD to NADH (stored energy)
Acetyl CoA + Oxaloacetic acid>acetic acid
Aerobic Metabolism, begins a chanin of reactions and end product is oxaloacetic acid
Electron Transport Chain
oxidizes in aerobic metabolism and NADH, FADH2 releases electrons creating hydrogen ion gradient (more on one side and less on other side)
Energy converts to ADP and ATP
and becomes 3ATP/NADH and 2ATP/FADH2, from one molecule of glucose with a total of 38 ATP produced
formation is lipogenesis and contains central glycerol molecues and 3 fatty acid chains
Breakdown of Lipid Metabolism
occurs through beta-oxidation and 2 carbons are removed at at time and result is CoA formation
Lipogenesis (begins to make fat) occur and fatty acids are broken down rapidy than acetyl CoA can be made
Proteins are used as they enter the body, broken down to amino acids and are 99% fat, and can be immediately used for energy
Nonessential Amino Acids
there are 20 and begin with keto acids which are normally available in the body
means moving amino group and the amine group is transferred from a different amino acid
To produce ATP
Oxidative deamination removes amine group, creates amonia, keto acids, and NAD is reduced to NADH
Beisides producing ATP and nonessential amino acids
uses of amino acids included anabolic reactions making hormones and repairing celss, and is necessary for gluconeogeniesis
uses excees glucos to form glycogen and is called Glycogenesis and this occurs in liver
Glycogenolysis Breakdown Structure
Glucose is used for energy in muscles cells and released from liver to maintain blood sugar levels
In Nutrient Interconversion
if liver's glycogen leels are depleted, amino acids and trigycerides are used to produce glucose
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