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Cell Metabolism


All chemical reactions in the body


Uses ATP, process of using energy, growth, repair, ad movement, example is steroids


Catabolism makes ATP, releases energy and where digestion decomposition should happen in the body

Cellular Metabolism

All metabolic processes in the cell, energy from food is used to make ATP and energy is transferred by moving electrons

Cellular Metabolism

Oxidation reduction (redox) reaction; to oxidize means to lose electron to positive and always occurs in pairs; to reduce means to gain electrons


destruction breakdown of sugar and is the 1st step in carbohydrate metabolism beginning with sugar

ATP composition

2 ATP added to glcuose

Sugar cleavage

Sugar is divided into 2 smaller molecules


NADH production, each suagr is oxidized, NAD is reduced, and electron carrier that stores energy for later

ATP and Pyruvic Acid Production

Each sugar rearranges to produce 1 pyruvic acid, 2 ATP


Net gain of 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvic Acid

Anaerobic Metabolism

Further breakdown of pyruvic acid and is in cytoplasm if there is no O2 present

Pyruvic Acid

is anerobic, reduces to lactic acid and uses 2 NADH and no ATP is produced

Lactic Acid

is anaerobic, is transported to liver and converted to glucose is O2 is present

Anerobic Metabolism

can cause muscle soreness and is a short term function

Aerobic Metabolism

further breakdown of pyruvic acid if O2 is present, pyruvic acid enters mitochondria and gives up an electron

Aerobic Metabolism

Broken down into CO2 (waste) and Acetyl group, reduces NAD to NADH (stored energy)

Acetyl group

is aerobic and combines with coenzyme A to form acetyl CO A

Aerobic Metabolism Total with Breakdown of Pyruvic Acid

2 Acetyl CoA, 2 NADH

Aerobic Metabolism

Citric Acid Cycle (Kreb's Cycle or TCA)

Acetyl CoA + Oxaloacetic acid>acetic acid

Aerobic Metabolism, begins a chanin of reactions and end product is oxaloacetic acid

Citric Acid Cycle End Result

1 ATP, 2 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2CO2

Electron Transport Chain

oxidizes in aerobic metabolism and NADH, FADH2 releases electrons creating hydrogen ion gradient (more on one side and less on other side)

Energy converts to ADP and ATP

and becomes 3ATP/NADH and 2ATP/FADH2, from one molecule of glucose with a total of 38 ATP produced

Lipid Metabolism

is 99% stored energy and contains tryglcerides


formation is lipogenesis and contains central glycerol molecues and 3 fatty acid chains

Breakdown of Lipid Metabolism

occurs through beta-oxidation and 2 carbons are removed at at time and result is CoA formation


Ketone body formation in liver, oxidation (removes electrons)


Lipogenesis (begins to make fat) occur and fatty acids are broken down rapidy than acetyl CoA can be made

Ketone Bodies

Circulate to muscle and convert back to acetyl CoA

Excessive Ketones

decrease pH, kidneys become more acidic, and liver etc. have to work harder

Protein Metabolism

Proteins are used as they enter the body, broken down to amino acids and are 99% fat, and can be immediately used for energy


have no storage form

Nonessential Amino Acids

there are 20 and begin with keto acids which are normally available in the body


means moving amino group and the amine group is transferred from a different amino acid

To produce ATP

Oxidative deamination removes amine group, creates amonia, keto acids, and NAD is reduced to NADH

Beisides producing ATP and nonessential amino acids

uses of amino acids included anabolic reactions making hormones and repairing celss, and is necessary for gluconeogeniesis

Nutrient Interconversion

uses excees glucos to form glycogen and is called Glycogenesis and this occurs in liver

Excess glucose and Amino Acids

are used to produce lipods and is called Lipogenesis

In Lipogenesis

most combine to form triglycerides

Sugar and fats

make lipids

Nutrient Interconversion

converts nutrients and enegy stored (1% is carbs) in liver

Glycogenolysis Breakdown Structure

Glucose is used for energy in muscles cells and released from liver to maintain blood sugar levels

In Nutrient Interconversion

if liver's glycogen leels are depleted, amino acids and trigycerides are used to produce glucose


present for nerves, tissues and epecially necessary for brain to operate


break down in the body and is called oxidative deanimation (occurs in aerobic conditions but especially the liver

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