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46 terms

Cell Metabolism

Cell Metabolism
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Metabolism
All chemical reactions in the body
Anabolism
Uses ATP, process of using energy, growth, repair, ad movement, example is steroids
Catabolism
Catabolism makes ATP, releases energy and where digestion decomposition should happen in the body
Cellular Metabolism
All metabolic processes in the cell, energy from food is used to make ATP and energy is transferred by moving electrons
Cellular Metabolism
Oxidation reduction (redox) reaction; to oxidize means to lose electron to positive and always occurs in pairs; to reduce means to gain electrons
Glycolysis
destruction breakdown of sugar and is the 1st step in carbohydrate metabolism beginning with sugar
ATP composition
2 ATP added to glcuose
Sugar cleavage
Sugar is divided into 2 smaller molecules
Glycoysis
NADH production, each suagr is oxidized, NAD is reduced, and electron carrier that stores energy for later
ATP and Pyruvic Acid Production
Each sugar rearranges to produce 1 pyruvic acid, 2 ATP
Glycolysis
Net gain of 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 Pyruvic Acid
Anaerobic Metabolism
Further breakdown of pyruvic acid and is in cytoplasm if there is no O2 present
Pyruvic Acid
is anerobic, reduces to lactic acid and uses 2 NADH and no ATP is produced
Lactic Acid
is anaerobic, is transported to liver and converted to glucose is O2 is present
Anerobic Metabolism
can cause muscle soreness and is a short term function
Aerobic Metabolism
further breakdown of pyruvic acid if O2 is present, pyruvic acid enters mitochondria and gives up an electron
Aerobic Metabolism
Broken down into CO2 (waste) and Acetyl group, reduces NAD to NADH (stored energy)
Acetyl group
is aerobic and combines with coenzyme A to form acetyl CO A
Aerobic Metabolism Total with Breakdown of Pyruvic Acid
2 Acetyl CoA, 2 NADH
Aerobic Metabolism
Citric Acid Cycle (Kreb's Cycle or TCA)
Acetyl CoA + Oxaloacetic acid>acetic acid
Aerobic Metabolism, begins a chanin of reactions and end product is oxaloacetic acid
Citric Acid Cycle End Result
1 ATP, 2 NADH, 1 FADH2, 2CO2
Electron Transport Chain
oxidizes in aerobic metabolism and NADH, FADH2 releases electrons creating hydrogen ion gradient (more on one side and less on other side)
Energy converts to ADP and ATP
and becomes 3ATP/NADH and 2ATP/FADH2, from one molecule of glucose with a total of 38 ATP produced
Lipid Metabolism
is 99% stored energy and contains tryglcerides
Triglycerides
formation is lipogenesis and contains central glycerol molecues and 3 fatty acid chains
Breakdown of Lipid Metabolism
occurs through beta-oxidation and 2 carbons are removed at at time and result is CoA formation
Ketogenesis
Ketone body formation in liver, oxidation (removes electrons)
Ketogenesis
Lipogenesis (begins to make fat) occur and fatty acids are broken down rapidy than acetyl CoA can be made
Ketone Bodies
Circulate to muscle and convert back to acetyl CoA
Excessive Ketones
decrease pH, kidneys become more acidic, and liver etc. have to work harder
Protein Metabolism
Proteins are used as they enter the body, broken down to amino acids and are 99% fat, and can be immediately used for energy
Proteins
have no storage form
Nonessential Amino Acids
there are 20 and begin with keto acids which are normally available in the body
Transamonation
means moving amino group and the amine group is transferred from a different amino acid
To produce ATP
Oxidative deamination removes amine group, creates amonia, keto acids, and NAD is reduced to NADH
Beisides producing ATP and nonessential amino acids
uses of amino acids included anabolic reactions making hormones and repairing celss, and is necessary for gluconeogeniesis
Nutrient Interconversion
uses excees glucos to form glycogen and is called Glycogenesis and this occurs in liver
Excess glucose and Amino Acids
are used to produce lipods and is called Lipogenesis
In Lipogenesis
most combine to form triglycerides
Sugar and fats
make lipids
Nutrient Interconversion
converts nutrients and enegy stored (1% is carbs) in liver
Glycogenolysis Breakdown Structure
Glucose is used for energy in muscles cells and released from liver to maintain blood sugar levels
In Nutrient Interconversion
if liver's glycogen leels are depleted, amino acids and trigycerides are used to produce glucose
Gluconeogenesis
present for nerves, tissues and epecially necessary for brain to operate
Proteins
break down in the body and is called oxidative deanimation (occurs in aerobic conditions but especially the liver