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49 terms

Management Test Final-Part 4

STUDY
PLAY
the three components of__________are initiation of effort, direction of effort, and persistence of effort
motivation
McClelland's Learned Needs Theory identifies three needs. They are the needs for:
power, achievement, and affiliation
according to Alderfer's ERG theory, the lowest-order need is
existence
according to the model of need satisfaction, an unsatisfied need produces:
tension
which of the following statements about needs is true?
higher-order needs will generally not motivate people as long as lower-order needs remain unsatisfied
on the basis of research evidence, the two basic needs categories are:
higher-order and lower-order needs
a group of actors gather to read the critical reviews of the new play they presented to audiences last night. The actors are looking for________rewards
extrinsic
which of the following is an example of an extrinsic reward?
a salary of increase
managers can motivate employees to increase their efforts by:
asking employees what their needs are then matching rewards to those needs
what practical steps can managers take to motivate employees to increase their effort?
satisfy employees' lower-order needs before attempting to satisfy higher-order needs
according to_____,people will be motivated when they perceive they are being treated fairly
equity theory
the two basic kinds of iniquity are:
underreward or overreward
how do employees try to restore equity when they perceive that they have been treated unfairly?
by doing any of them
______is the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated
distributive justice
the_________states that people will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they are offered attractive rewards
expectancy theory
when an employee uses leaving as a mechanism for restoring equity, he or she may:
do all of these
in expectancy theory,______ is the perceived relationship between performance and rewards
instrumentality
reinforcement theory says behavior is a function of:
its consequences
the two parts of reinforcement are:
reinforcement contingencies and schedules of reinforcement
users of GM Master Cards earn money toward the purchase of a new General Motors car or truck every time they use this credit card to make purchases. The rebate increases the more times the credit card is used. GM is using:
positive reinforcement
which of the following is NOT a type of reinforcement contingency?
overreward
which of the following is also called avoidance learning?
negative reinforcement
in an______reinforcement schedule, a consequence follows every instance of a behavior
continuous
a____is a target, objective, or result
goal
__is the extent to which people consciously understand and agree to goals
goal acceptance
effective managers define____as the process of influencing others o achieve group or organizational goals
leadership
which of the following is a major concern of leaders (as opposed to managers)?
inspiring and motivating others
which of the following statements about leaders and managers is true?
organizations need both leaders and managers
the term____refers to subordinate, task, and or organizational characteristics that make leaders redundant or unnecessary
leadership substitutes
the term____refers to subordinate, task, or organizational characteristics that can interfere with a leader's actions or make it impossible for a leader to influence followers' performance
leadership neutralizers
relatively stable characteristics such as abilities, psychological motives, or consistent patterns of behavior, form the basis for the___of leadership
trait theory
leaders who possess the trait of_are more decisive and assertive and more likely to gain others' confidence
self-confidence
successful business leaders are not like other people. Successful business leaders:
are accurately described by all of these
which of the following is another term for considerate leadership behavior
concern for peopke
college football coaches are often high in_____. They design every facet of practices, set goals, for their players, determine schedules, and even direct all of the plays during the game
initiating structure
research shows that while initiating structure impacts primarily on____, consideration impacts primarily on_____.
job performance; job satisfaction
which of the following is the best leadership style for all situations?
none of these
which of the following is an example of situational theory of leadership?
Fiedler's contingency theory
which of the following leadership theories assumes that leadership styles are consistent and difficult to change
none of these
Fielder's contingency theory assumes
leaders are effective when their work groups perform well
which of the following approaches to implementing Fielder's contingency theory in the workplace has proven effective?
accurately measuring and matching leaders to situationss
which of the following is NOT one of the four leadership styles identified in the path-goal theory of leadership
charismatic
the two types of worker readiness identified by the Hersey and Blanchard's situational thepry are:
job readiness and psychological readiness
according to the Hersey and Blanchard's situational theory, which of the following is NOT an example of a leadership style?
empowering
the normative decision theory
helps managers determine how much employee participation should be used in decision making
the Vroom-Yetton-Jago Model is another name for the:
normative decision theory
the two kinds of charismatic leaders are referred to as:
ethical charismatic and unethical charismatic
____generates awareness and acceptance of a group's purpose and mission and gets employees to see beyond their own needs and self-interest for the good of the group
transformational leadership
which leadership style would be most likely to rely on positive and negative reinforcement
transactional