theory of evolution
-central theme of modern biology
-evolution helps us understand how the variations between individuals can lead to changes in an entire species
introduced the idea of evolution in the 1850's, which has since become an accepted theory
is a concept that has been tested and confirmed in many different ways and can be used by scientists to make predictions about the natural world
- the theory of evolution helps us understand the similarities among organisms such as bone structure and biochemical make up
-history of life is revealed by this, which shows the history of Earth's organisms
-it also spans much of geologic time, the billions of years of Earths history
evolution doesn't always show progress in a set direction for any species, but rather changes cause species to appear to grow like branches on a tree:
-some branches extend from beginning to present with little change
-some die off
-and some branch further
each branch represents a different species.
branching points show common ancestors of the species at the ends of branches
artificial selection of plants and animals by breeders
Darwin proposed that evolution was similar to this process...
describes how organisms with desirable traits (random) survive in nature and are able to breed and pass on their genetic information (survival of the fittest)
evolutionary change depends on...
-supply of resources
-selection by the environment
-each species has the potential to produce more offspring that can possibly survive
-stable environments maintain populations at a constant rate from year to year based on resources
factors affecting survival:
-ability to competition
-new traits that can lead to evolution come from this, its within a species, which is the unique combination of traits each organism inherits from its parents
-some variations are advantages when competing for resources
a trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce under a given set of environmental conditions has this...
ex.) coloration of a rabbit
in sexually reproducing organisms only the changes in...
the sex cells or gametes are passed onto the offspring
two ways organisms can develop different genes that are different from its parents are...
-change a base sequence of a DNA molecule
-are random events that cannot be predicted
-most are harmful and may cause death, however few are benefit an individual, increasing the chance of survival, reproduction, and passing this on to the next generation
-beneficial ones lead to the evolution of a new species
- the sorting and random recombination of genes during meiosis and fertilization resulting in new and different combinations of genes
- these genes are passed onto offspring
traits with adaptive value in a specific environment gives individuals in that environment this...