33 terms

Ch. 14

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Terms in this set (...)

Bureau of Indian Affairs
the government agency responsible for managing Indian issues
John Chivington
US Army Colonel in Sand Creek Massacre
Sand Creek Massacre
Black Kettle of Cheyenne tribe surrendered to troops; troops open fired; killed mainly women and children
Treaty of Medicine Lodge
peace treaty; majority of Indians moved onto reservations
Treaty of Fort Laramie
Sioux moved onto reservation
Sitting Bull
important Sioux leader; had a vision - gave Indians confidence for fighting US army
Battle of the Little Bighorn
US army attacked Indian troops; all US troops died
George Armstrong Custer
US general in Battle of the Little Bighorn
Wovoka
religious movement; Ghost dance, brought Indian ancestors back to life; brought hope to Indians
Massacre at Wounded Knee
Big Foots troops were attacked; end of conflict between soldiers and Indians
Chief Joseph
Nez Perce leader
Geronimo
Apache leader; fled reservation with 75 followers
Sarah Winnemucca
Indian reformer
Dawes General Allotment Act
Indian lands surveyed; families got 160 acres in reservations; what wasn't given was sold which reduced Indian lands even more
Homestead Act
land offered to citizens to live and work on; after five years they owned the land; up to 160 acres
Pacific Railway Act
gave lands to railroad companies to develop a railroad line linking the East and West coasts
Morrill Act
gave states 17 million acres of federal land; sale would finance construction of agricultural and engineering colleges; led to more then 70 state universities
Exodusters
African Americans who left south after election of 1878; went to Kansas
Benjamin Singleton
leader of Exodusters; 70-year-old former slave
Sod Houses
buildings made of chunks of top soil; stacked like bricks; difficult to build
Bonanza Farms
farms owned by large companies; operated like factories
Willa Cather
writer; wrote about Great Plains
Texas Longhorn
english cattle and spanish cattle interbreed; tough meat; could travel long distances on little water; lived year-round on grass; immune to Texas Fever
Long Drives
overland treks to take cattle to rail lines in Missouri
Railhead
town at end of long drive; located along railroad; brokers bought cattle to ship east on railroad cars
Open Range
free grazing land; made cattle ranching profitable
Joseph Glidden
patented barbed wire; farmer
Comstock Lode
one of the worlds richest silver veins
Patio Process
used mercury to extract silver from ore
William H Steward
US secretary of state; negotiated Alaska purchase
Hydraulic Mining
water shot at high pressure to rip away gravel and dirt to expose mineral underneath; killed environment
Hard-rock Mining
sinking deep shafts to obtain ore locked in veins of rock
Frederic Remington
one of the most influential of the frontier artist