What was the material from which the solar system formed?
A nebula made mostly of hydrogen and helium gas, but enriched in heavier elements from supernova explosions
The radial velocity of a star or other object is measured by
observing the Doppler shift of spectral lines in the light from the object.
What is a proplyd?
A protoplanetary disk, such as those observed around some stars in the Orion nebula
The time-scale over which material in the solar nebula accreted to form planets was about
100 million years.
Which planets have one or more satellites (or moons) orbiting them?
All except the inner two planets
Mercury's average density and the fact that it has a (weak) magnetic field lead to the conclusion that its central core is probably
solid and/or molten iron.
What name is given to the concentration of mass that formed at the center of the solar nebula and eventually became the Sun?
In which of the following ways is there a similarity between Jupiter and the Earth?
Auroras are produced by magnetospheres on both planets.
From a location in the northern hemisphere, the pole star always appears at an angle above the northern horizon equal to
the latitude of the location.
Moon's angular diameter in our sky is measured to be 0.5°.
the diameter of the Moon in kilometers if we know the Moon's distance.
tilt angle of the Earth's spin axis to the direction perpendicular to the ecliptic (known as the ecliptic pole)
is 23.5° and fixed
constellation whose stars are used as pointers to the north celestial pole in the northern hemisphere at this time in
Ursa Major, the Big Dipper
human being (height about 2 m) larger than the nucleus of a hydrogen atom, or proton (diameter about 10-15 m)?
Polaris is the name for the bright star almost directly in line with the north polar axis of Earth. What is the name of the
bright star almost directly in line with the south polar axis of Earth?
There is no bright star almost directly in line with Earth's south polar axis.
The plane of the ecliptic intersects the celestial equator
at two points, the vernal and autumnal equinoxes
An eclipse of the Sun in which the Moon is too distant to cover the Sun completely, so that a ring of sunlight is seen around the Moon at mid-eclipse.
What is the linear momentum, p, of an object
The product of an object's mass times its velocity, p = mv
Which one of the following is not part of the scientific method?
determine consistence with recognized authorities
wavelength regions MUST be observed from space because almost no energy in this region reaches the ground
If two photons in a vacuum have different energies, what can we say about the wavelengths of these photons
The high erenergy photon has the shorter wavelength.
detector that in many instances has replaced the photographic plate for astronomical photography
best shape for the cross-section of a simple astronomical mirror in order to produce the sharpest images of very distant objects
at its prime focus is
Pieces of metal are heated by varying amounts in a flame. The hottest of these will be the one that shows which color most prominently?
We plot the intensity of the radiation emitted from an object at a certain temperature versus its wavelength. As we increase the
temperature, the wavelength at which the spectrum peaks becomes shorter and shorter. This is an example of
The Balmer series of visible spectral emissions from hydrogen gas arises from transitions in which electrons jump between energy
from higher levels to the first excited level, n = 2
If you want to design a device that will detect animals at night by the radiation they give off, even if the night is totally dark, to
what wavelength range should you make the device sensitive?
Spectral lines are of particular importance in astronomy because
each different element has a characteristic line spectrum
Light that originates in hydrogen atoms in which electrons have jumped from high levels to the level n = 2 will be part of which
series of spectral lines?
What is the Zeeman effect?
The attraction of two areas of opposite magnetic polarity toward each other
A particular star has an angle of parallax of 0.2 arcsecond. What is the distance to this star?
A star in the lower left part of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, compared to a star in the middle of the diagram, is
Which two physical parameters of stars are plotted on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to show the systematics of a group of
stars (e.g., a cluster)?
Lum and surface temp