19 terms

Mitosis

Mitosis vocabulary
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Cell Cycle
The regular sequence of growth & division that cells undergo. Consists of interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis.
Interphase
The stage of the cell cycle that takes place in between cell divisions; the cell grows, copies its DNA (DNA replication) & prepares to divide.
Replication
The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus. This occurs during the S-phase of interphase.
Mitosis
The stage of the cell cycle during which the cell's nucleus divides into 2 new nuclei & 1 copy of the DNA is distributed into each daughter cell. Consists of 4 phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
Chromosome
A double rod of condensed chromatin wrapped around histone proteins; contains DNA that carries genetic information .
Chromatid
One half of a chromosome after DNA replication.
Cytokinesis
The final stage in the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the 2 new genetically identical cells.
Cancer
A disease in which the body cells grow & divide uncontrollably, damaging the parts of the body around them.
Mutation
A change in a gene or chromosome.
Tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that develops when cancerous cells divide & grow uncontrollably.
prophase
first phase of mitosis in which chromatin condenses into chromosomes and the nuclear membrane disappears
anaphase
the third part of mitosis, during which the chromatids separate and become individual chromosomes that move apart towards opposites poles
centromere
area where the chromatids of a chromosome are attached
telophase
4th and final phase of mitosis, during which a nuclear membrane forms around each of the 2 new sets of chromosomes and the chromosomes begin to re-form into chromatin
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
How many cells are produced by mitosis?
two cells
How does the genetic material of the daughter cell produced by mitosis compare to the original cell?
they are genetically identical
What type of cells does mitosis occur in?
all body cells
Mitosis
The process of cell division that occurs in all body cells in which 2 genetically identical cells are produced with the same number of chromosomes