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Terms in this set (37)
Who led the counterrevolution? Who supported it?
Irreconcilable nobles and alienated church men. Reckless peasants
Who were the sans-culottes?
Small shopkeepers, artisans, wage earners
Who did they foresee as succeeding the fallen aristocracy?
The sans-culottes demanded the government do what 5 things?
end food shortages, punish spectulators and profiteers, increase wages, and set price controls on bread and other food
Socially, what was their ideal?
nation of small shopkeepers and small farmers.
Politically, what did they favor?
A democratic republic in which the common man had a voice.
By the close of 1792, what 3 things were the sans-culottes demanding?
Equality with the bourgeoisie, political reforms that would give the poor a voice in the government and social reforms that would improve their lot.
What event caused the revolution to move from its moderate stage into a radical
The war that broke out with Austria and Prussia in April 1792
What ultimately led to the destruction of the monarchy?
The foreign invasion.
The Girondins pushed for war against Austria for what reasons?
They believed that a successful war would unite France under their leadership, and they were convinced that Austria was already preparing to invade France and destroy the Revolution.
What happened on April 20, 1792?
The legislative Assembly declared war on Austria.
What manifesto did the duke of Brunswick issue?
That if the royal family were harmed he would exact a terrible vengeance on the Parisians.
What was the successor to the Legislative Assembly?
The National Convention
What did this new governing body do in September of 1792?
Abolished the monarchy and established a republic.
What was King Louis XVI's fate?
He was placed on trial, and he was executed in January 1793 for conspiring against the liberty of the French people.
By the beginning of 1793, what had French forces accomplished?
They had overrun Belgium, the German Rhineland, and the Sardinian provinces of Nice and Savoy.
What did the rulers of Europe form by the spring of 1793? What country led the
They urged on by Britain, formed and anit-French alliance by the spring of 1793. Britain led the way.
What occurred in the Vendee in western France?
Peasants who were protesting against taxation and conscription took up arms against the republic.
Who replaced the Girondins as the dominant group in the National Convention?
What were 2 reforms did the Jacobins want?
They wanted a strong central government, with Paris as the center of power. They also supported temporary governmental controls to deal with the needs of war and economic crisis.
Why did the Jacobins want to form an alliance with the sans culottes?
In order to defend the Revolution against foreign and domestic enemies.
What 4 major problems faced the Jacobins?
They had to cope with civil war, particularly in the Vendée, economic distress, blockaded ports, and foreign invasion.
What act allowed the Jacobins to gain control of the government?
Serving as a cabinet for the Invention, the Committee of Public Safety.
What was the role of the Committee of Public Safety?
They organized the nation's defenses, formulated foreign policy, supervised ministers, ordered arrests, and imposed the central government's authority throughout the nation.
How did the Jacobins reveal their humanitarianism and their debt to the
By abolishing both slavery in the French colonies and imprisonment for debt and by making plans for free public education.
What did the Jacobins do to halt inflation and gain the support of the poor?
They decreed the law of the maximum, which fixed prices on bread and other essential goods.
To fight the war against foreign invaders what act did the Jacobins institute?
They drafted unmarried men between eighteen and twenty-five years of age.
What does "la patrie" mean?
How large was the army the Jacobins equipped?
In demanding complete devotion to the nation, the Jacobin phase of the revolution
brought about the rise of what?
The rise of modern nationalism
According to Robespierre's utopian vision, what would an individual's duties be?
To detest bad faith and despotism, to punish tyrants and traitors, to assist the unfortunate, to respect the weak, to defend the oppressed, to do all the good one can to one's neighbors, and to behave with justice towards all men.
To preserve republican liberty, what government policy did the Jacobins institute?
Made terror a deliberate government policy.
The Jacobin leadership attacked what four enemies?
Girondins who challenged Jacobin authority; federalists who opposed a strong central government emanating from Paris; counterrevolutionary priests and nobles and their peasant supporters; and profiteers who hoarded food.
Why did Robespierre and his fellow Jacobins resort to the guillotine?
Because they sought to establish a temporary dictatorship in a desperate attempt to save the republic and the Revolution.
Describe the proceedings that took place in "special courts" throughout Paris?
The were established to try suspects. The proceedings were carried on in haste, and most judgments called either for acquittal or execution.
How many people perished during the reign of terror? How did the Jacobins save
40,000. Expelled foreign armies, crushed the federalist uprisings, contained the counterrevolutionaries in the Vendee and prevented anarchy.
What were the grievances of the Bourgeoisie
They wanted all positions in church, army and state to be open to all men of talent, regardless of birth. They sought a parliament that would make laws for the nation and limit the King's power and guarantee freedom of thought; and administrative reforms
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