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name the organs of the urinary system.

2 kidneys, 2 ureters, bladder, uethra

what are the 4 functions of the urinary system?

remove waste, regulate body chemicals, secrete hormones, maintain ph balance

What is the most important excretory organ in the body?


What does the kidney do?

removes nitrogenous waste

what is nitrogenous waste?

a toxin derived from food

What happens when the kidney fails?

the nitrogenous waste that should be removed by the kidney poisons the body

what shape does the kidney resemble?


what are the measurements of the kidney?

4 in long, 2.2 in wide

how much does the kidney weigh?

about 5.5 oz

How does the blood enter the kidney?

via the abdominal aorta to the renal arteries

where do the renal arteries lead?

to smaller arteries called arterioles

where do the arterioles lead?

the glomerulus of the nephron

where does urine formation start?

glomerular filtration

where does the blood pass through to become liquid?

the bowmans capsule

What are the 6 substances that make up the glomerular filtration process?

sugar, water, salt, urea, uric acid, creatinine


a waste product of protein

what are the two normal chemicals found in blood

uric acid, creatinine

What is the 2nd part in urine formation

tubular reabsorption

what happens during tubular reabsorption

water, sugar and salt are returned to the blood stream

what do selective cells due during tubular reabsorption

they absorb needed substances and replenish the body

threshold is

when selective cells have absorbed needed substances and completly replenished the body

what i the term for too many substances being absorbed by selective cells during tubular reabsorption

spilling over the threshold

what is the 3rd process of urine formation

tubular secretion

what happens during tubular secretion

substance move out of the blood and into the renal tubules

what is the outer most layer of the kidney


what is the middle layer of the kidney


the medulla divides into _____________

renal pyramids

the cortex contains what

millions of nephrons

what is the functional unit of the kidney

the nephron

the nephron is responsible for what

the formation of urine

how many parts does the nephron contain


what are the three main parts of the nephron

the glomerulus, the bowmans capsule, the renal tubule


ball shaped coil of capillaries

bowmans capsule

cup shaped structure surrounding the glomerulus

renal tubule

a tube that leads away from the glomerulus to the other tubules of the kidney

what are the 3 parts of the renal tubule

convoluted proximal tubule, loop of thenle, distal convoluted

renal pyramids

triangular shaped tissue inside the kidney

what do renal pyramids contain

the loop and the tubules of the nephron

minor calyx

a cup like collection cavity in the tip of each renal pyramid

major calyx

formed from several minor calyx merging together

renal pelvis

formed from the merging of several major calyx

what is the port for collecting urine

renal pelvis

where do the ureters lead

one leads from each kidney to the bladder

purpose of the ureters is

to take the urine by wavelike contractions to the bladder

what are the wavelike contractions called



hollow, muscular sac that serves as the reservoir for urine

how much urine can the bladder hold

up to 1 quart


tube that leads from the bladder to the urinary meatus

what controls the release of urine

the external sphincter

how long is the urethra in women

1-2 in

how long is the urethra in men

7-8 in

what is the average amount of urine excreted in one day

2 quarts

what is urine composed of

95% water and 5% waste

what is the normal color of urine

pale yellow to deep golden

what is te normal appearance of urine


is urine aromatic (contain aroma)


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