name the organs of the urinary system.
2 kidneys, 2 ureters, bladder, uethra
what are the 4 functions of the urinary system?
remove waste, regulate body chemicals, secrete hormones, maintain ph balance
What is the most important excretory organ in the body?
What does the kidney do?
removes nitrogenous waste
what is nitrogenous waste?
a toxin derived from food
What happens when the kidney fails?
the nitrogenous waste that should be removed by the kidney poisons the body
what shape does the kidney resemble?
what are the measurements of the kidney?
4 in long, 2.2 in wide
how much does the kidney weigh?
about 5.5 oz
How does the blood enter the kidney?
via the abdominal aorta to the renal arteries
where do the renal arteries lead?
to smaller arteries called arterioles
where do the arterioles lead?
the glomerulus of the nephron
where does urine formation start?
where does the blood pass through to become liquid?
the bowmans capsule
What are the 6 substances that make up the glomerular filtration process?
sugar, water, salt, urea, uric acid, creatinine
a waste product of protein
what are the two normal chemicals found in blood
uric acid, creatinine
What is the 2nd part in urine formation
what happens during tubular reabsorption
water, sugar and salt are returned to the blood stream
what do selective cells due during tubular reabsorption
they absorb needed substances and replenish the body
when selective cells have absorbed needed substances and completly replenished the body
what i the term for too many substances being absorbed by selective cells during tubular reabsorption
spilling over the threshold
what is the 3rd process of urine formation
what happens during tubular secretion
substance move out of the blood and into the renal tubules
what is the outer most layer of the kidney
what is the middle layer of the kidney
the medulla divides into _____________
the cortex contains what
millions of nephrons
what is the functional unit of the kidney
the nephron is responsible for what
the formation of urine
how many parts does the nephron contain
what are the three main parts of the nephron
the glomerulus, the bowmans capsule, the renal tubule
ball shaped coil of capillaries
cup shaped structure surrounding the glomerulus
a tube that leads away from the glomerulus to the other tubules of the kidney
what are the 3 parts of the renal tubule
convoluted proximal tubule, loop of thenle, distal convoluted
triangular shaped tissue inside the kidney
what do renal pyramids contain
the loop and the tubules of the nephron
a cup like collection cavity in the tip of each renal pyramid
formed from several minor calyx merging together
formed from the merging of several major calyx
what is the port for collecting urine
where do the ureters lead
one leads from each kidney to the bladder
purpose of the ureters is
to take the urine by wavelike contractions to the bladder
what are the wavelike contractions called
hollow, muscular sac that serves as the reservoir for urine
how much urine can the bladder hold
up to 1 quart
tube that leads from the bladder to the urinary meatus
what controls the release of urine
the external sphincter
how long is the urethra in women
how long is the urethra in men
what is the average amount of urine excreted in one day
what is urine composed of
95% water and 5% waste
what is the normal color of urine
pale yellow to deep golden
what is te normal appearance of urine
is urine aromatic (contain aroma)
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