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54 terms

Digestive System

Stuff for the quiz on 4/26
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Hydrolysis
Using h2o to break down large molecules into monomers
Gastrointestinal track
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum
Mechanical digestion
Breaking down food using muscular movements
Chemical digestion
Breaking down food using chemicals
Mouth
Beginning of mechanical and chemical digestion
Mechanical
Type of digestion teeth do
Enamel
Outer layer of tooth
Dentin
Middle layer of tooth
Pulp cavity
Inside of tooth; contains blood vessels and nerves
Maxilla and mandible
Muscles the teeth are anchered in
Paratoid gland
Main Saliva gland near the ear
Submandibular gland
Saliva gland beneath mandible
Sublingual gland
Saliva gland beneath tongue
Nervous
Which system regulates saliva glands?
Mucus
Fluid that moistens and lubricates food; protects stomach lining
Lysozyme
Enzyme which attacks bacteria cell walls
Amylase
Enzyme which breaks down starch to disaccharide maltose
Bolus
Ball of food formed in mouth after chewing and partial digestion
Epiglottis
Cartilage flap which blocks the glottis(opening to trachea)
Esophagus
Tube from pharynx to stomach;about 25cm long
Peristalsis
Circular smooth muscles contract in wave-like motion forcing food through system
Cardiac Sphincter
Muscle ring which makes a valve allowing the blouse to enter the stomach
Mechanical
Type of digestion caused by churning-motion of stomach
Hydrochloric acid (HCI)
Gastric fluid that helps with chemical digestion
Pepsinogen
Gastric enzyme which breaks down protein to smaller polypeptide chains; works best in an acidic environment
Chyme
Material that leaves stomach (1-2 hours to digest)
Pyloric Sphincter
Sphincter muscle between stomach and small intestine
Duodenum
First part of Small Intestine; 4-5' long; most digests occurs here
Jejunum
Second part of Small Intestine; 9' long; most absorption of nutrients occurs here
Ileum
Third part of Small Intestine; 9' long; remaining nutrients absorbed here
Duodenum
enzymes produced in the lining of this part of small intestine
Peptidases
Enzyme in small intestine (duodenum); Continue digestion of polypeptides -> dipeptides -> amino acids
Maltase
Enzyme in small intestine (duodenum); maltose -> 2 glucose
Lactase
Enzyme in small intestine (duodenum); lactose -> glucose & galactose
Sucrase
Enzyme in small intestine (duodenum); sucrose -> glucose & fructose
Pancreas & liver
Produce enzymes but are not part of GI track
Villus
Finger like projections on wall which contain smaller microvilli to increase the surface area for food absorption (wrinkles)
Glycerol & fatty acids
All nutrients except for these are absorbed into blood
Lacteal
Lymph vessel in each villus that absorbs fatty acids and glycerol and move them through the lymph system and return them too the blood stream near the clavicle
Ileocecal
Opening between small and large intestines
Appendix
Organ that sticks out of large intestine and has no apparent use in humans; other animals store cellulose and indigestible substances here
Rectum
Last section of colon, stores feces until eliminated
Anus
Opening at base of rectum
Water, indigestible substances, & cellulose
Matter that enters the large intestine
Colon
Where water and vitamins produced by bacteria is absorbed
Water
75% of feces
Diarrhea
Too much water with fecal matter
Constipation
Not enough water with fecal matter
Flatulence
Combination of gasses that travel from stomach to anus
Pancreas
Organ located behind the stomach that isn't part of the GI track but important to the digestive system, releases fluid into duodenum
Liver
Organ located above the stomach that isn't part of the GI track but important to the digestive system
Pancreas
Produces hormones to regulate blood sugar levels, enzymes for breaking down carbs, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids, and makes sodium bicarbonate
Sodium bicarbonate
Fluid produced by pancreas to neutralize stomach acid so enzymes can work
Bile
Fluid produced by liver and stored on gall bladder, emulsifiers fats (increases surface area to make digestion by lipase more efficient)

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