History of Art 2001 Midterm 1 Terms
Terms in this set (42)
Images on the interior of rock shelters or caves.
Latin, "wedge- shaped." A system of writing used in ancient Mesopotamia, in which wedge- shaped characters were produced by pressing a stylus into a soft clay tablet, which was then baked or otherwise allowed to harden.
The chamber at the center of an ancient temple; in a classical temple, the room in which the cult stature usually stood.
One of a series of superimposed bands or friezes in a pictorial narrative, or the particular levels on which motifs are placed.
Hierarchy of Scale
An artistic convention in which greater size indicates greater importance.
A convention of representation in which part of a figure is shown in profile and another part of the same figure is shown frontally; also called twisted perspective.
Votives/ Votive Offerings
A gift of gratitude to a deity.
The destruction of religious or sacred images. In Byzantium, the period from 726 to 843 when there was an imperial ban on such images. The destroyers of images were known as iconoclasts.
A carved stone slab used to mark graves or to commemorate historical events.
In ancient Egypt, the immortal human life force.
the notion that art improves upon natural or actual appearance of things
A building having a roof supported by several rows of columns.
The raised part of a building that rises above the roofs of buildings and columns. It contains numerous slits, allowing light into the building.
A relief where the artist cuts the design into the surface so that the highest projecting parts of the image are no higher than the surface itself.
Painting on lime plaster, either dry (dry fresco) or wet (true fresco). In the latter method, the pigments are mixed with water and become chemically bound to the freshly laid lime plaster. Also, a painting executed in either method.
An arch formed by the piling of stone blocks in horizontal courses, cantilevered inward until the blocks meet at a keystone.
In Mycenaean architecture, the triangular opening above the lintel that serves to lighten the weight to be carried by the lintel itself.
Formed in relief by beating a metal plate from the back, leaving the impression on the face. The metal sheet is hammered into a hollow mold of wood or some other pliable material and finished with a graver.
Greek, "young man." An Archaic Greek statue of a young man.
Greek, "young woman." An Archaic Greek statue of a young woman.
Parts of Doric Temple: column shaft, capital, triglyph, metope, pediment
Column Shaft: Vertical, weight- carrying architectural member, circular in cross sectional and consisting of a base. Capital: The uppermost member of a column, serving as a transition from the shaft to the lintel. Triglyph: A triple projecting, grooved member of a doric frieze. Metope: The square panel between the triglyphs in a doric frieze, often sculpted in relief. Pediment: The triangular space at the end of a building, formed by the ends of the sloping roof above the colonade.
In early Greek pottery, the silhouetting of dark figures against a light background of natural, reddish clay, with linear details incised through the silhouettes.
Red- Figure Technique
Attributed to the Andokides Painter in the sixth century. Figures and decorative motifs remained the color of the clay; the background, filled in with the slip, turned black. Figures could be articulated with dilute washes or layers of glaze applied with a brush instead of incised with a burin. This method opened up greater possibilities due to the brush technique that allowed for greater naturalistic representation of anatomy and emotion.
The disposition of the human figure in which one part is turned in opposition to another part (usually hips and legs one way, shoulders and chest another), creating a counter positioning of the body about its central axis. Sometimes called "weight-shift" because the weight of the body tends to be thrown to one foot, creating tension on one side and relaxation on the other.
Was celebrated every year with a sacrificial procession, and with a more splendid, Pan-hellenic festival (the Great Panathenaia), every four years. A new robe was presented to the ancient wooden statue of Athena Polias.
A long band of reliefs that is unbroken in terms of narrative content, style, and subject matter.
"Wet Drapery" Figure
A term used by art historians to describe diaphanous cloth that appears to cling to the body in animated folds while it reveals the contours of the form underneath
A pose of 'modesty'. Derived from 'pudenda' and equated with he words 'shame' and 'genitalia'.
The distinctive identifying aspect of a person, for example, an object held, and associated animal, or a mark on the body.
Greek, "cube." A tiny stone or piece of glass cut to the desired shape and size for use in forming a mosaic.
The use of perspective to represent in art the apparent visual contraction of an object that extends back in space at an angle to the perpendicular plane of sight.
A method of presenting an illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two- dimensional surface. Linear perspective is the most common- all parallel lines or surface edges converge on one, two, or three vanishing points located with reference to the eye level of the viewer.
Creates the illusion of distance by the greater diminution of color intensity, the shift in color toward an almost neutral blue, and the blurring of contours as the intended distance between eye and object increases.
True to natural appearance; super- realistic
Elevated to the rank of gods, or the ascent to heaven.
The ritual circling of a Roman funerary pyre.
A sunken panel, often ornamental, in a vault or a ceiling.
A building material invented by the Romans and consisting of various proportions of lime mortar, volcanic sand, water, and small stones.
A purplish colored stone, prized for its extreme hardness and color. Purple is a sign of royalty.
Greek, "rule by four." A type of Roman government established in the late third century CE by Diocletian in an attempt to foster order by sharing power with potential rivals.
The re-purposing of building stone for new construction, or the reuse of decorative sculpture on new monuments