29 terms

Oceanography

Exam 3
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Terms in this set (...)

physical oceanography
ocean's physical attributes, mixing, waves, tides, currents
marine geology
geology of the ocean floor-plate tectonics
marine chemistry
chemistry of the ocean and its chemical interaction with the atmosphere
marine biology
plants, animals, microbes of oceans and ecological interaction
What drives ocean currents?
external forces including related to graviation and radiation flux
Gravitation includes:
tidal forces, Coriolis effect from rotation
Result from radiation flux from sun results in
wind stress, heating and cooling of ocean surface, evaporation, precipitation
Largest footprint of solar heating
poles
onshore flow
summer, cool sea>warm land
offshore flow
winter, cool land>warm sea
Easterly winds
air>equator
Westerly winds
equator>30deg, poles>60deg, air dense enough to fall back to earth surface
wind stress
wind speed squared (wind force depends on this and roughness)
March ocean
bottom row shoots right linearly
June ocean
bottom row has 2 arrows, 1st right, 2nd downright
September ocean
bottom row has 5 clustered arrows
December ocean
bottom row shoots right
Ekman spiral (horizontal)
top layer driven forward by wind, layer below by friction, lower layers move slower and at angles, 90 to right in N
vertical circulation
downwelling=water moving onshore, upwelling=water moving offshore
where upwelling occurs
winds blow parallel to coast so drift is away from coast
heat flux determined by
incoming solar radiation, ougoing back radiation, heat loss from evaporation, mechanical heat transfer between ocean and atmosphere
SST effects what of heat flux
obr, hle, mht b/w o&atm
heat flux impt to cyclones
warm air^, coriolis force into vortex, CC in NH
stratification
density of cold water higher than warm water, warm water moves up where more solar energy, cold water moves down iso'ing upper mixed ocean layer from cold deep waters
vertical distribution of water
salinity, temperature, density
surface zone
low salinity, high temperature, not dense in comparison to deep waters
anticyclonic
general circulation in all oceans C in NH
duckies landed
south majority, remaining headed North, did full circle back near Japan caught up North, entered Bering Strait>ice
phytoplankton growth
limited by lack of sunlight in deep, upper surface limited by lack of nutrients
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