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Poland-Lithuania, Habsburg Empire, Russia, Scientific Revolution

The Diet (Sejm)

Poland's central legislative body including only nobles.

Liberum Veto (Exploding the Diet)

Opposition from any one of the members of the Sejm would require the body to disband.

Noble liberty chaos

Other countries took advantage of the liberum veto through bribery, which eventually led to the disappearance of Poland in the late 1700s.

John III Sobieski

King of Poland, led Poland to rescue Vienna from a Turkish siege.


Austrian Habsburgs consolidated power within hereditary possessions outside of the Holy Roman Empire, including Bohemia and Austria-Hungary.

Thirty Years' War

It marked a mental turning point in history of Austrian Habsburgs. They were previously in alliance with Spain and hoped to bring all of Germany under their control, but failed.

War vs. Turks

Leopold I resisted advances of the Ottoman Empire.


Hungarian nobles that were mostly Calvinist and wanted to rebel.

Leopold I

King of Austria; resisted Turkish invasions

War of Spanish Succession

Wars between France and England to claim Spain after Charles II's death. England had a huge advantage in finance and strength, but France won anyways.

Austrian Netherlands and Lombardy

In the Treaty of Rastadt (1714), Austria received the former Spanish Netherlands and Lombardy in Northern Italy.

Charles VI

Succeeded Joseph I; he had no male heir, so he created the Pragmatic Sanction (1711-1740).

Pragmatic Sanction (1713)

Charles VI' had no male heir, so he created the Pragmatic Sanction, which provided the legal basis for a single line of inheritance and allowed his daughter, Maria Theresa, to succeed him.


Peter the Great went to west Europe and liked it a lot. He decided to try to Westernize Russia.

The Great Embassy

Peter's trip to the west (1697-1698) with hundreds of technical advisors.

St. Petersburg

Peter founded the new capital city of St. Petersburg in 1703 on the Gulf of Finland, where he constructed government buildings and got the boyars to build town houses.

Table of Ranks

Peter published this, which equated a person's social position and privileges with rank in bureaucracy/military.


The guards of the Moscow garrison who opposed Peter and supported his sisters. They rebelled in 1698 but lost.

Senate and College

Peter created departments called colleges to oversee government affairs. The leaders of the colleges had to be loyal to Peter.

Holy Synod

Peter replaced the Russian Orthodox Church with the Holy Synod, a government department which governed the church according to the tsar's secular requirements. It was the most radical transformation of a traditional institution during his reign.

Old Believers

Orthodox people that separated from the Russian Orthodox Church who protested against the church reforms.

Great Northern War (Narva and Poltava)

Wars between Russia and Sweden; Sweden (Charles XII) led Sweden to a victory at Narva, but Peter strengthened his forces and won in Poltava. Russia obtained an ice-free port.

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