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Section 2: The Roman Empire
Terms in this set (66)
The creation of the Roman empire transformed:
society, economy, and
The Roman Empire has served
throughout history as:
of political organization and
What happened when Rome enlarged its territory?
went from a republic to a "mighty dictator-ruled empire"
What brought many problems to Rome?
Rome's increasing wealth and expanding boundaries
What were the most serious problems occurring?
growing discontent among the lower classes of society
and a breakdown in military order
What did these problems lead to?
to a shakeup of the
republic—and the emergence of a new political system
What happened to the gap between rich and poor as Rome grew?
Where did Rome's landowners live?
Who was forced to work on these estates?
thousands of enslaved persons
By 100 BC what formed 1/3 of Rome's population?
What happened to the small farmers?
found it difficult to compete with the large estates run by the
labor of enslaved people.
Many of these farmers were:
What did they do
-sold their lands to wealthy landowners and became homeless and
-Most stayed in the countryside and worked as seasonal migrant laborers
-Some headed to Rome and other cities looking for work
-joined urban poor
a group that totaled about one-fourth of Roman society
Who attempted to help Rome's poor?
Two brothers, Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
What did they do as Tribunes?
they proposed such reforms as limiting the size
of estates and giving land to the poor
Why did they make many enemies of numerous senators?
the senators felt threatened by their ideas
What followed their death?
a period of civil war
conflict between groups within the same country,
followed their deaths.
What happened as the republic grew more unstable?
generals began seizing greater power for themselves
How would a general take over power?
-They recruited soldiers from the
landless poor by promising them land.
-These soldiers fought for pay and owed allegiance
only to their commander.
-They replaced the citizen-soldiers whose loyalty had been to the republic.
-possible for a military leader supported by his own troops to take over by force.
Who was Julius Caesar
-joined forces with Crassus and Pompey to form a strong triumvirate
-Caesar was elected consul
-genius at military strategy
-1 year as consul
-governor of Gaul
What did Pompey and the Senate order Caesar to do?
to disband his legions and return home.
three solid leaders that share control of the government
What made Caesar very popular in Rome?
the reports of his successes in Gaul
Who was Pompey and what did he do?
-Caesars political rival who feared Caesars ambitions
-ordered Caesar to disband his legions and return home
What did Caesar do when he defied the senates order?
-took his army across the Rubicon River in Italy, the Southern limit commanded.
-Marched his limit
What did Caesar do instead?
On the night of January 10, 49 B.C., he took his army across the Rubicon River in Italy, the southern limit of the area he commanded. He marched his army swiftly toward Rome, and Pompey fled. Caesar's troops defeated Pompey's armies in Greece, Asia, Spain, and Egypt. In 46 B.C., Caesar returned to Rome, where he had the support of the army and the masses. That same year, the senate appointed him dictator. In 44 B.C., he was named dictator for life.
What made Caesar popular with the people in Rome?
The reports of Caesar's successes in Gaul
How did Julius Caesar win his men's loyalty and devotion?
he shared fully in the hardships of war
How did Caesar win his men's loyalty and devotion?
he shared fully in the hardships of war
How did Caesar govern?
as an absolute ruler, one who has total power.
• Public works to employ the jobless
• Public land to the poor
•expanded the Senate
• Citizenship to more people
• New calendar (Julian Calendar)
What happened to Caesar and when?
•Julius Caesar is stabbed to death
•The Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC
Why was he stabbed?
Many nobles and senators expressed concern over Caesar's growing power, success, and popularity. Some feared losing their influence. Others considered him a tyrant. A number of important senators, led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius, plotted his assassination.
What happened after Caesar died?
•civil war broke out again and destroyed what was left of the Roman Republic.
•Three of Caesar's supporters
banded together to crush the assassins.
Who took over Rome after Julius Caesars death?
Caesar's 18-year-old grandnephew and adopted son Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus
How did their alliance end?
•jealousy and violence
•Octavian forced Lepidus to retire.
•Octavian and Mark Antony became enemies
What happened after Mark Antony met Cleopatra?
While leading troops against Rome's enemies in Anatolia, Mark Antony met Queen Cleopatra of Egypt. He fell in love with her and followed her to Egypt. Octavian accused Antony of plotting to rule Rome from Egypt, and another civil war erupted. Octavian defeated the combined forces of Antony and Cleopatra at the naval battle of Actium in 31 B.C. Later, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide.
title meaning "the exalted one"
Octavian as a ruler...
While he restored some aspects of the republic, Octavian became the unchallenged ruler of Rome. Eventually he accepted the title of Augustus (aw•GUHS•tuhs), or"exalted
one." He also kept the title imperator, or "supreme military commander," a term from which emperor is derived. Rome was now an empire ruled by one man.
For 207 years, peace reigned throughout the empire, except for some fighting with tribes along the borders. This period of peace and prosperity is known as the Pax Romana— "Roman peace."
What did Augustus do while ruling?
•stabilized the frontier
•glorified Rome with splendid public buildings
•created a system of government that survived for centuries.
•set up a civil service.
•civil servants drawn from plebeians and
even former slaves administered the empire.
paid workers to manage the affairs of government, such as the grain supply,
tax collection, and the postal system.
What happened after Augustus died?
the system of government that he established maintained the empire's stability.
What was the reason for this?
the effectiveness of the civil service in carrying out day-to-day operations.
What was the most important industry in room?
Rome had a vast ______.
What connected the empire far places?
•A complex network of roads
What qualities would a person have to have the important virtue of gravitas?
discipline, strength, and
What kind of people were the Romans?
•honored strength more than beauty
•power more than grace
•usefulness more than elegance
•most people farmed
•smaller cities, merchants, soldiers, slaves, foreigners, and philosophers all shared the crowded, noisy streets.
•people from all walks of
life came together to create a diverse society.
What role did slavery play in Rome?
•widespread and important to the economy.
•Numbers of slaves may have reached as high as one-third of the total population
•conquered peoples brought back by victorious Roman armies and included men, women, and children
•Children born to slaves also became slaves.
•Slaves could be bought and sold.
What was life like for the slaves?
•According to Roman law, slaves were the property of their owners. They could be punished, rewarded, set free, or put to death
as their masters saw fit.
•treated cruelly and worked at hard labor all day long
•strong, healthy males were forced to become gladiators, or professional fighters, who fought to the death in public contests
•if worked in rich household were treated better
the powerful spirits or divine forces the earliest Romans worshipped that they believed resided around them
the guardian spirits of each family
In Rome, government and _____ were linked.
symbols of the state
What were Romans expected to do?
honor the deities not only in private rituals at shrines in their homes but also in public worship ceremonies conducted by priests in temples
father of the
Jupiter's his wife
-watched over women
goddess of wisdom and of the arts and crafts
What also became part of the official religion of Rome?
worship of the emperor
Society and Culture
•wealth and social status made huge differences in how people lived.
•Classes had little in common
•rich lived extravagantly, spent large sums of money on homes, gardens, slaves, and luxuries, gave banquets that lasted for many hours and included foods that were rare and costly, such as boiled ostrich and parrot-tongue pie
•most people in Rome barely had the necessities of life
•much of the city's population was unemployed
•supported these people with daily rations of grain
•in the shadows of great temples and public buildings, poor people crowded into rickety, sprawling tenements. Fire was a constant danger.
What did the government provide to distract and control the masses of Romans?
free games, races, mock battles, and gladiator contests
a huge arena that could
hold 50,000, would fill with the rich and the poor alike
What slowly emerged during the time of Pax Romana?
the practice of a new religion known as Christianity
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Section 1: The Roman Republic
Section 3: Rise of Christianity
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