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Which vitamins are water soluble?

B-complex and Vitamin C

Which vitamins are fat soluble?

Vitmain A, D, K, E

Compare absorption of water soluble vitamins to fat soluble vitamins

water soluble are absorbed in the small investing but active transport and diffusion alter bioavailability (the amount of vitamins absorbed by the body at one time). Fat soluble are absorbed in the small intestine too, but packaged with other lipids into chylomicrons

Explain difference of excretion for water soluble and fat soluble vitamins

water soluble- kidneys filter out excess, which is excreted through urine
fat soluble- tend to remain in liver or adipose tissue

What fat soluble vitamin is special in that it is excreted?

Vitamin K- excreted through urine (reduced toxicity)

How does this finding relate to vitamin toxicity?

water soluble vitamins are less likely to be at toxic levels

Vitamins are organic molecules whereas minerals are what?


How does the unit of measurement for vitamins and minerals compare to carbohydrates and protein?

Carbs and proteins are macronutrients and measured in grams whereas vitamins and minerals are micronutrients and are measure in mg (needed in much smaller dosage)
[Different from macronutrients because vitamins come as individual units]

How does a coenzyme function?

it is an organic molecule, often derived from vitamins, needed for enzymes to function

What is an enzyme cofactor?

a nonprotein component of an enzyme, often a mineral, needed for its activity

When boiling vegetables in water you are most likely to reduce vitamin C content of the food as opposed to vitamin A. Why?

vitamins that are water soluble are going to come out in the water; cooking them in water for long periods of time will cause you to lose the vitamins

Water soluble vitamins are attached to what and how are they destroyed?

a protein and may be destroyed during storage or cooking

Explain differenced between water soluble and fat soluble vitamins circulation though the blood.

water soluble- when circulates, first stop is the liver
fat soluble- first go into lymph system and then to bloodstream

Function of water soluble vitamins?

b vitamins are coenzymes in energy metabolism and other functions, Vitamin C acts as antioxidant

Function of fat soluble vitamins?

various physiological function in the body; each vitamin has different functions of its own

What are the only toxic water soluble vitamins?

B3 and B6 (niacin and pyridoxine)

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