bio 112 final unit 2

Indeterminate Growth
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Terms in this set (146)
Location of OvuleBottom of the carpel (location)Location of StigmaTop of the carpel (location)PollinationWhen pollen grain surface proteins interact with stigma surface proteinsPollen tube growthGrowth guided by signals released from egg at the base of the carpel; forms after pollination occursPollen tubesperm moves into the egg through this structureDouble fertilization1 sperm fuses with egg to form diploid zygote while other sperm fuses with 2 maternal nuclei to form a triploid cell which divides to form the endospermEndospermNutritive tissue formed by repeated triploid cell divisionEmbryogenesisPhase where ovule matures into a seed, which contains a dormant embryo and nutrientsSuspensorFormed from basal cell; anchors the embryo as it developsMature embryoFormed from apical cellApical-basal axisDeveloped by asymmetries in the basal and apical cells; root-to-shoot axis of a plantRadial axisDevelops after the apical basal axis, where the embryo is in its globular stageVegetative organsThese begin to take shape after apical-basal and radial axes are in placeCotyledonsIntial leavesHypocotylStem-like structure that connects the cotyledons to the rootMeristemsUndifferentiated cells that form after/while the shoot and root and cause continuous growth and development; Functions in development and allows plants to adjust to changing environment (SAM & RAM)Auxinsignal molecule that is produced in the SAM and triggers MONOPTEROS production that leads to hypocotyl/root development, setting up the apical-basal axisGerminationprocess where seedling is formedLeaf axesproximal-distal, lateral, and adaxial-abaxialPhantasticaGene that is critical in setting up the adaxial-abaxial (or upper-lower) axis of genes; without it evolutionary changes in leaves occurFloral Meristemmodified shoot apical meristem that produces reproductive organ-containing flowers; produces four whorls of organsSepalFound on outside of flower, provides it with protectionPetalInside sepals, enclose the reproductive organs and may become colorful to attract pollinatorsStamenMale reproductive structure in a flower; inside petals, pollen-producing organCarpelFemale reproductive structure in a flower; found in middle of flower, contain egg-producing ovulesABC model1. Each of the 3 genes involved is expressed in two adjacent whorls 2. Total of 4 different combos of gene products can occur 3. Each of the 4 combos of gene products triggers the development of a different floral organplasmodesmataconnects adjacent plant cellsVascular tissueconnects root and shoot systemtaprootvertical section of root systemlateral rootssection of root system that runs horizontallyroot systemanchors the plant in the soil, absorbs water and ions from the soil, conducts water and selected ions to the shoot, and stores material produced in the shoot for later usemorphological diversity (roots)in root systems, this form of diversity is apparent in praries or grasslandsphenotypic plasticity (roots)- have a lot of phenotypic plasticity - actively grow in areas of soil where there are abundant resourcesAdventitiousroots that develop from the shoot system instead of the root systemproproots that help brace individuals in windy weather; in cornpneumatophoresspecialized lateral roots that function in gas exchange; in mangrovescontractileroots that shorten to pull the organism deeper in the soil; in bulbsmorphological diversity (shoots)Variation in this system allows plants of different species to harvest light at different locations (minimizes competition) and to thrive in different habitatsphenotypic plasticity (shoots)Allows response to changes in environmental conditions, growth in directions that maximize sunlightcactistems that store waterstolonsstems that run over soil surfacerhizomesstems that grow underground horizontallytubersstems that store carbsthornsstems that protect plantnodeswhere leaves are attached on steminternodessegments between nodes on stembladeexpanded portion of leafpetiole"stalk" portion of leafmorphological diversity (leaves)easily recognizable blade, but blades may vary in size/shapephenotypic plasticity (leaves)don't grow continously, but still plastic (sun vs. shade)sunleaves with small surface area to reduce water lossshadelarge, broad leaves to maximize absorption of photonsspinesleaves that protect stemonion bulbsleaves specialized for storing nutrientssucculentsthick leaves that store watertendrilsmodified leaves/leaflets that enable climingaxillary budnode where leaves attach to stem, may develop into a branchapical budat tip of each stem or branch, growth occurs that extends length of stem/branchprimary growthlengthens roots and shoots and gives rise to tissue systemsapical meristemscells derived from this form primary plant body; gives rise to three distinct cell populationsprotodermgives rise to dermal tissue systemground meristemgives rise to ground tissue systemprocambiumgives rise to vascular tissue systemground tissuesystem that makes up bulk of plant body; photosynthesis and storagedermal tissuesingle layer of cells that covers plant body and protects itvascular tissuesystem that provides support and transports water, nutrients, and photsynthetic products between the root and shoot systemssporophyteindividual in the diploid phase of lifegametophyteindividual in the haploid phase of lifesporecell that grows directly into an adult individualsporeunlike animals meiosis does not lead directly to gamete formation, this type of haploid cell is produced inteadsporangiaplace where haploid spores are produced via meiosismitosiswhat type of cell division do gametophytes go through to form gametes?haploid gametophytesresult of spores going through mitosissporophytewhat forms when the zygote grows by mitosismeiosiswhat type of cell division do sporophytes undergo to produce sporesclonesasexual reproduction's resultasexual reproductionadvantage-efficient disadvantage-genetically similar populations more likely to succumb to diseasesrhizomesunderground horizontal stems with roots and shoots emerging, if individuals emerging from nodes become separated from the parent plant, there is offspring; asexual strategycormsasexual strategy; underground modified stems plantsplantletsform from meristematic tissue on leaf margins, when they mature they drop off the parent plant and grow into individual; asexual strategyapomixisoccur when mature seeds form without fertilization occuring, resulting in genetically identical seeds to parent; asexual strategyflowerreproductive structure that produces gametes, attracts gametes, nourishes embryos, and develops seeds and fruitsmature seedconsists of an embryo and nutrient stores surrounded by a protective coatfruitsdevelop from the flower's seed-producing organ and contain seedsflower formationwhat begins when an apical meristem becomes a floral meristem able to produce modified leavesexternalthese cues may involve length of day and night, the arrival of season rains, etc.internalthese cues could include favorable nutritional status or hormonesphotoperiodismany response by an organism based on photoperiodphotoperiodrelative lengths of day and nightflorigenflowering hormone named by biologists even though real hormone hasnt been found yetcalyxentire group of sepals in the flowersepalsoutermost part of flower, arranged in whorl attached to receptacle and encloses flower bud as it growsreceptaclethe four basic flower organs are attached to this compressed portion of a stempetalsvisual ads to pollinators with a nectary gland at the basecorollaentire group of petals in a flowerstamenproduce male gametophytes (polleen grains) that go on to produce sperm; each one has a filament and antherfilamentstalk in the stamenantherflower organ where pollen-producing meiosis and pollen formation occurfilamentslender stalk in the carpelovarywhere are female gametophytes produced in ovules?perfectflowers that contain both stamens and carpelsimperfectflowers that contain either stamens or carpelsmonoeciousplants that have separate stamen and carpel producing flowers on the same individualdioeciousplants that have either stamen or carpel producing flowers, but not both on the same individualone or morehow many ovaries does an angiosperm have?megasporophytecell in the ovule that is inside the megasporangiummegasporangiumstructure in the ovule that contains the megasporocyteeightin angiosperms, how many haploid nuclei are in the embryo sac along with the seven cells?2 polar nucleiwhat is in the large central cell in the embryo sac?micropyleopening to the ovule, near the end of the gametophyte where the egg cell is foundgenerative cell and tube cellwhat does the immature male gametophyte consist of?pollen grainin males, each microspore divides by mitosis to form a:selfingoccurs when a sperm and an egg from the same individual combine to produce offspringoutcrossingcommon; occurs when sperm and egg from different individuales combinecross-pollinationoutcrossing results from this; when pollen is carried from the anther of one individual to the stigma of another individualtemporal avoidancemethod to prevent selfing; occurs when male and female gametophytes within a perfect flower mature at different timesspatial avoidancemethod to prevent selfing; occurs in some perfect dioecious species, anthers and stigma are so far apart that self-pollination is extremely unlikelymolecular matchingoccurs when pollination is blocked, matching proteins on pollen grain and stigma indicate that the pollen and stigma are from same individualmutualismmutually beneficial relationship between two species; animal pollination is an examplepollination syndromesclose correlations between structure of a flower and the size, shape, and behavior of its pollinatorscoevolutiontwo interacting species recipricolly influence eachothers adaptations over timeevolution of pollinationallowed species to colonize drier habitatsbasal celllower cell that divides to form a root tip cell and the suspensor (in embryogenesis)terminal cellupper cell that forms a cell mass that will give rise to all the cells in the embryo (in embryogenesis)suspensornutrients can travel through this from the parent plant to the developing embryoepicotylin some embryos, upper portion of the embryonic stemmonocotshave one cotyledondicotshave two cotyledonssimple fruitsdevelop from single flower that contains a single carpel (or several carpels that are fused together); ex. apricotaggregate fruitsdevelop from a single flower that contains many separate carpels; ex. raspberrymultiple fruitsdevelop from many flowers and many carpels; ex. pineappleseed dormancycondition where seeds don't germinate for some time; adaptation that allows seeds to remain viable until environmental conditions improve1what step of germination is this- seed takes up water, consumes oxygen, and synthesizes proteins2what step of germination is this- water uptake stops, seed makes new mRNA and proteins needed to support growth, mitochondria begin to multiply3what step of germination is this- water uptake resumes as growth begins and embryos burst from seed coatradiclewhat is the first structure to emerge from the seed during germination?