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49 terms

Abnormal Psychology RM

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Abnormal behavior
statistically rare
judged to be maladaptive
socially unacceptable
personally distressing to the individual
Psychoanalytical model
Cause of abnormal behavior is rooted deep within the unconscious mind, unresolved intra-psychic behavior.
Humanistic Model
Abnormal behavior is a result of environmental influence, from deviating from your true self
Cognitive Model
When thoughts and belief systems are disordered and faulty, one may easily begin to distrust others and explain events in very pessimistic ways.
Biomedical Model
it is due to structural or chemical abnormalities in the brain
Behavioral Approach
abnormal behavior has at some point been rewarded or reinforced, and has now been learned
Sociocultural approach
holds that society and culture help define what is acceptable behavior
DSM-IV
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders by the APA
classifies psychological disorders across 5 axes
Axis I
major disorders like mood, eating, sleeping, substance-related disorders, and perceptual and cognitive disruptions
Axis II
Personality disorders (avoidant, dependent personalities, retardation)
Axis III
physical disorders that have an impact on behavior
Axis IV
asses level of psychosocial and environmental stress person is experiencing
Axis V
overall assessment of person's level of functions
Criticisms of the DSM IV TR
Relies too heavily on the medical model
"Casts too wide a net"- too many disorders
Symptoms of some disorders overlap
Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders activate the sympathetic nervous system and cause excessive worry and discomfort
Panic Disorder (AD)
Repeated attacks of intense fear with
severe medical symptoms
Generalized anxiety disorder (AD)
Excessive anxiety not focused on specific
situation or object
Phobia (AD)
intense, irrational fear of avoidance of stimuli or event
-specific phobias (claustrophobia)
-social phobias, fear of being publicly humiliated
-agoraphobia
OCD (AD)
Persistent worries accompanied by
compulsive ritualistic behavior
PTSD (AD)
Trauma followed by flashbacks and nightmares
Somatoform disorders
when patients complain of physical symptoms without a known organic (biological) cause.
Conversion Disorder (SD)
Loss of physical ability (ex. sight) with no
organic cause
Such a person is convinced his or her symptoms are real, but doesn't show a typical level of distress.
HYPOCHONDRIASIS (SD)
Preoccupation with illness where none is present, often to get attention
Factitious disorders (SD)
person inflicts injury or ingests toxins in order to produce symptoms
Mood/Affective Disorders
change stable moods from excessively euphoric to dysphoric.
Unipolar (MD)
AKA Major depression
Intense sadness, change in eating and
sleeping activity, changes in energy level
and concentration, persists for more than
two weeks (lack of serotonin)
Seasonal affective disorder (MD)
Depression which usually occurs in late
fall/winter
Bipolar Disorder (MD)
Alternating episodes of mania (euphoric
mood, reckless behavior, grandiosity,
and loss of contact with reality) and
major depressive episodes
Schizophrenia
psychotic disorder characterized by gross (large) disturbances of affect (expression of emotions), perception, movement, and thought or language.
Dopamine hypothesis
theory suggests schizophrenics have an excess number of dopamine receptors in the brain which causes symtoms
Disorganized (schizo)
Hallucinations, incoherence,
inappropriate affect, delusions
Paranoid (Schizo)
Delusions of grandeur or persecution
Catatonic (Schizo)
Disordered movement: stupor alternating
with excitement
Undifferentiated (Schizo)
Disturbances of thought, behavior and
emotion that don't fit into any other
subtype
Organic Disorders
caused by damage to brain tissues, maybe because of disease or chemicals
Personality Disorders
pervasive expression of extreme, abnormal personality which interfere with normal social functioning
Paranoid PD
extreme distrust and suspicion of others
Antisocial PD
marked by disregard for rights or interests of others
Narcissistic PD
self-preoccupations and need for others to focus on oneself
Dependent PD
need to be cared for
Histrionic PD
excessive emotional reactions and excitability, as well as by need for attention
Dissociative disorders
involve a dysfunction of memory or an altered sense of identity
Amnesia DD
sudden loss of memory following trauma
Anterograde Amnesia
loss of memories occuring after hte traumatic event
retrograde amnesia
loss of memories from before the traumatic event
Dissociative Fugue
complete loss of identity, can be caused by severe stress, assumption of new identity (leave homes and go far away)
Dissociative identity Disorder
appearance of 2 or more distinct identities in one individual, IDs might not be aware of each other
ADHD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder
Either can't concentrate or constant need to move and do something
Rosenhan Study
8 people were diagnosed with schizophrenia even when they accurate answers to all psych questions