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-achieved victory over the other Frankish leaders in ca. A.D. 500
-created the Merovingian Dynasty
-established Paris as a capital
-converted to Roman Catholic Christianity
-established the use of government where the Frankish counts ruled alongside Roman Catholic bishops (Galo-Romans)
-divided kingdom amongst sons - Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy
-first used the term major domus - Mayor of the Palace

major domus/Mayor of the Palace

-chief officer of king's household
-overshadows the power of the king
-expanded their power at the expense of the kings

Charles Martel

-major domus of Austrasia
-led Franks to victory over Muslims at the Battle of Tours/Poiters in 732
-gained virtual control over all kingdoms by his death

Battle of Tours/Poitiers

-Muslims vs Austraisia
-Muslims defeated
-Franks led by Charles Martel
-first use of sturups!!


-the name of the field or crop in the three-field system that is untouched for a growing season to help replenish the soil nutrients
-fields rotate as to which lays fallow at what time

Merovigian Dynasty

-created by Clovis
-named after the Frankish legend Merovich
-"Do Nothing Kings"

Pepin III

-son of Martel
-retained his father's possitions as mayor of the palace
-pledges to help the Pope in return for the title of king

Papal supremacy

-established by the Pope
-Pope has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole
-increasing power that the Pope has even in the state


-son of Pepin III
-expanded Frankish kingdom through 54 military campaigns
-Frankish army mostly infantry with some cavalry
-voluntary army of farmer warriors
-took Italy and the Saxons
-Charlemagne's empire remained the largest in central Europe until Napoleon in the 19th century
-crowned as emperor on Christmas day in 800 by Pope Leo III

Carolingian Dynasty

-the line of Charlemagne
-included Charles Martel and Pepin III
-most famous Frankish line


-Italy taken away in 773 by Charlemagne


-attacks and destroys Charlemagne's rear guard when Charlemagne advances into Spain in 777


-south of the North Sea Saxons were controlled and converted by Charlemagne after 18 campaigns in 804


-counts in the more dangerous border districts
-members of nobility

missi dominici

-"messengers of the king"
-involved 2 men (1 lay person and 1 church representative)
-spies for the king

Pope Leo III

-fled Rome and found sanctuary in Charlemagne's court
-crowned Charlemagne as emperor on Christmas day in 800

Holy Roman Emperor

-first used in Christmass of 800


-writing rooms
-monks copied Latin and Christian works in the scriptoria
-established by monasteries


-replaced papyrus when papyrus became scarce
-also called a velum


-form of handwriting
-form of print
-replaced script
-easier to read and learn

Alcuin of York

-became head of Charlemagne's palace schools
-"greatest scholar of the day"
-taught classical Latin
-establishes the liberal arts as the basis of education in the Middle Ages

nuclear family

-young couples establish own households

Louis the Pious

-inherits the Carolingian Empire
-not a stable leader

Treaty of Verdun

-divided empire among Charlemagne's grandsons (Lois' sons)

Charles the Bald

-Western kingdom - kept the Frankish customs; "romance" dialect
-old Nuestria future France


-Middle kingdom - source of constant tension
-old Burgundy future Switzerland

Louis the German

-Eastern kingdom - kept German dialect
-old Austraisia future Germany


-from western Asia
-migrated into east and central Europe by 9th century
-established themselves on the plains of Hungary
-crushed at the Battle of Lechfield in Germany in 955


-Norsemen from Northern Scandinavia
-2 strengths - 1) warrior society - raiding tactics 2) ship building - narrow hulls could navigate rivers far inland
-got land from the ruler of the Western Franks that eventually became Normandy
-Christianity unified Franks and Normans
-inability of rulers to protect, led people to turn to local nobles instead who established the "mini-kingdoms" aka. = feudalism


-Muslim invasions during the 8th and 9th centuries
-sea bases in North Africa, Spain, and Gaul
-invaded Sicily in 827

Battle of Lechfield

-Otto I crushed the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfield in Germany


-an agricultural estate operated by a lord and worked by peasants
-lords give protection = peasants give up their freedom
-peasants tied to Lord's land


-land retained by the lord
-might encompass one-third to one-half of the cultivated lands scattered throughout the manor & building barns & digging ditches


-large class of free peasants
-bound to land
-could not be bought or sold
-required to provide labor services, pay rents, and be subject to lord's jurisdiction
-9th century = 60% of western Europe's population became serfs

three-field system

-increased agricultural production
-one field - planted in fall with grains (oats, rye, wheat)
-second field - planted in spring (oats, barley, legumes, peas, beans, lentils)
-third field - allowed to lie fallow
-rotations between each field resulted in one laying fallow each rotation


-the whole sacred ceremony envolving knighting, the oath of fealty, the act of homage, and the giving of benefices/fiefs

benefice / fief

-a landed estate granted to a vassal in exchange for military services
-vassals who held land came to exercise rights of jurisdiction or political and legal authority


-when fief-holding became complicated
-vassal to lord relationshp
-vassals had vassals etc.


-oath of faith


-derived from Germanic society
-warriors swore an oath of loyalty to their lords


-a socially acceptable alternative to the socially destructive fighting


-knight bashing
-knight vs knight
-became the main part of the tournament
-knights saw jousts as an excellent way to train for war


-money that frees a vassal from a specific duty


-some specific duty that is not allowed


-ceremonial giving of a fief to a vassal


-giving of a fief


-mounted warriors who fought for nobles in return for weapons and daily sustenance
-an individual who served a lord in a military capacity
-in return for his fighting skills, a knight received a piece of land from his lord that provided for his economic support


-code of behavior
-represented a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold

Eleanor of Aquitaine
c. 1122-1204

-heiress to the duchy of Aquitaine in southwestern France
-married King Louis VII of France 1st
-failure to bear sons led to Louis having their marriage annulled
-married Henry II of England and duke of Normandy 2nd
--took on an active role in politics
-assisted her sons in rebelling against Henry and was imprisoned because of it


-Clovis baptized


-Battle of Tours/Poiters (Muslims vs Austraisia or Franks)


-Pepin III crowned king of the Franks by the Pope


-Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III on Christmas day


-Treaty of Verdun (division of the empire among Charles the Bald, Lothar, and Louis the German)


-Battle of Lechfield in Germany
-Otto I vs Magyars
-victory for Otto I

What is the Code of Chivalry?

-the moral, religious, and social code of knightly conduct, generally upholding the virtues of courage, honor, and service
-control of powerful knights
-elerate women
-focused on church, champion of good, protecting the weak, and honoring the Lord

What is the Grail mythology?

-the Holy Grail refers to the chalice (cup) that Jesus used during the last supper (and/or dish/cup used to collect the blood of Jesus on the cross)
-symbolic of Jesus and his his healing/redemptive powers of his blood
-becomes the object of ultimate quest for the knights of Arthur's kingdom
-symbolizes the ideal quest for God

What is the Fisher King Myth?

-the elaborate tale of redemption
-the injured king gets healed by the perfect prince/knight
-the king is healed thus the kingdom is healed

What led to the development of Courtly Love?

-writen by Andreas Capellanus at the request of Countess Marie of Troyes, daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine
-originally written in Latin
-Eleanor and Marie created a set of manners that became the standard of chivalrous behavior for knights of the time
-"courts of love" were held to test the behavior of lovers to see if they held up to the standards set in Capellanus' writings
-Eleanor and Marie believed that women should have love in their life and not meerly settle for the marriages for land, power, wealth, etc.

How did the Romance genre begin?

-"romance" derived from the Old French word romanz
-began life as the name for a narrative poem about chivalric heroes
-latter the term was applied to the distinctive love relationship commonly featured in poems

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