-achieved victory over the other Frankish leaders in ca. A.D. 500 -created the Merovingian Dynasty -established Paris as a capital -converted to Roman Catholic Christianity -established the use of government where the Frankish counts ruled alongside Roman Catholic bishops (Galo-Romans) -divided kingdom amongst sons - Neustria, Austrasia, and Burgundy -first used the term major domus - Mayor of the Palace
major domus/Mayor of the Palace
-chief officer of king's household -overshadows the power of the king -expanded their power at the expense of the kings
Charles Martel 714-741
-major domus of Austrasia -led Franks to victory over Muslims at the Battle of Tours/Poiters in 732 -gained virtual control over all kingdoms by his death
Battle of Tours/Poitiers 732
-Muslims vs Austraisia -Muslims defeated -Franks led by Charles Martel -first use of sturups!!
-the name of the field or crop in the three-field system that is untouched for a growing season to help replenish the soil nutrients -fields rotate as to which lays fallow at what time
-created by Clovis -named after the Frankish legend Merovich -"Do Nothing Kings"
Pepin III 500
-son of Martel -retained his father's possitions as mayor of the palace -pledges to help the Pope in return for the title of king
-established by the Pope -Pope has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church -increasing power that the Pope has even in the state
-son of Pepin III -expanded Frankish kingdom through 54 military campaigns -Frankish army mostly infantry with some cavalry -voluntary army of farmer warriors -took Italy and the Saxons -Charlemagne's empire remained the largest in central Europe until Napoleon in the 19th century -crowned as emperor on Christmas day in 800 by Pope Leo III
-the line of Charlemagne -included Charles Martel and Pepin III -most famous Frankish line
-Italy taken away in 773 by Charlemagne
-attacks and destroys Charlemagne's rear guard when Charlemagne advances into Spain in 777
-south of the North Sea Saxons were controlled and converted by Charlemagne after 18 campaigns in 804
-counts in the more dangerous border districts -members of nobility
-"messengers of the king" -involved 2 men (1 lay person and 1 church representative) -spies for the king
Pope Leo III
-fled Rome and found sanctuary in Charlemagne's court -crowned Charlemagne as emperor on Christmas day in 800
Holy Roman Emperor
-first used in Christmass of 800
-writing rooms -monks copied Latin and Christian works in the scriptoria -established by monasteries
-sheepskin -replaced papyrus when papyrus became scarce -also called a velum
-form of handwriting -form of print -replaced script -easier to read and learn
Alcuin of York
-became head of Charlemagne's palace schools -"greatest scholar of the day" -taught classical Latin -establishes the liberal arts as the basis of education in the Middle Ages
-young couples establish own households
Louis the Pious
-inherits the Carolingian Empire -not a stable leader
Treaty of Verdun 843
-divided empire among Charlemagne's grandsons (Lois' sons)
Charles the Bald
-Western kingdom - kept the Frankish customs; "romance" dialect -old Nuestria future France
-Eastern kingdom - kept German dialect -old Austraisia future Germany
-from western Asia -migrated into east and central Europe by 9th century -established themselves on the plains of Hungary -crushed at the Battle of Lechfield in Germany in 955
-Norsemen from Northern Scandinavia -2 strengths - 1) warrior society - raiding tactics 2) ship building - narrow hulls could navigate rivers far inland -got land from the ruler of the Western Franks that eventually became Normandy -Christianity unified Franks and Normans -inability of rulers to protect, led people to turn to local nobles instead who established the "mini-kingdoms" aka. = feudalism -LOCALISM
-Muslim invasions during the 8th and 9th centuries -sea bases in North Africa, Spain, and Gaul -invaded Sicily in 827
Battle of Lechfield 955
-Otto I crushed the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfield in Germany
-an agricultural estate operated by a lord and worked by peasants -lords give protection = peasants give up their freedom -peasants tied to Lord's land
-land retained by the lord -might encompass one-third to one-half of the cultivated lands scattered throughout the manor & building barns & digging ditches
-large class of free peasants -bound to land -could not be bought or sold -required to provide labor services, pay rents, and be subject to lord's jurisdiction -9th century = 60% of western Europe's population became serfs
-increased agricultural production -one field - planted in fall with grains (oats, rye, wheat) -second field - planted in spring (oats, barley, legumes, peas, beans, lentils) -third field - allowed to lie fallow -rotations between each field resulted in one laying fallow each rotation
-the whole sacred ceremony envolving knighting, the oath of fealty, the act of homage, and the giving of benefices/fiefs
benefice / fief
-a landed estate granted to a vassal in exchange for military services -vassals who held land came to exercise rights of jurisdiction or political and legal authority
-when fief-holding became complicated -vassal to lord relationshp -vassals had vassals etc.
-oath of faith
-derived from Germanic society -warriors swore an oath of loyalty to their lords
-a socially acceptable alternative to the socially destructive fighting
-knight bashing -knight vs knight -became the main part of the tournament -knights saw jousts as an excellent way to train for war
-money that frees a vassal from a specific duty
-some specific duty that is not allowed
-ceremonial giving of a fief to a vassal
-giving of a fief
-mounted warriors who fought for nobles in return for weapons and daily sustenance -an individual who served a lord in a military capacity -in return for his fighting skills, a knight received a piece of land from his lord that provided for his economic support
-code of behavior -represented a code of ethics that knights were supposed to uphold
Eleanor of Aquitaine c. 1122-1204
-heiress to the duchy of Aquitaine in southwestern France -married King Louis VII of France 1st -failure to bear sons led to Louis having their marriage annulled -married Henry II of England and duke of Normandy 2nd --took on an active role in politics -assisted her sons in rebelling against Henry and was imprisoned because of it
-Battle of Tours/Poiters (Muslims vs Austraisia or Franks) -stirrups!!
-Pepin III crowned king of the Franks by the Pope
-Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III on Christmas day
-Treaty of Verdun (division of the empire among Charles the Bald, Lothar, and Louis the German)
-Battle of Lechfield in Germany -Otto I vs Magyars -victory for Otto I
What is the Code of Chivalry?
-the moral, religious, and social code of knightly conduct, generally upholding the virtues of courage, honor, and service -control of powerful knights -elerate women -focused on church, champion of good, protecting the weak, and honoring the Lord
What is the Grail mythology?
-the Holy Grail refers to the chalice (cup) that Jesus used during the last supper (and/or dish/cup used to collect the blood of Jesus on the cross) -symbolic of Jesus and his his healing/redemptive powers of his blood -becomes the object of ultimate quest for the knights of Arthur's kingdom -symbolizes the ideal quest for God
What is the Fisher King Myth?
-the elaborate tale of redemption -the injured king gets healed by the perfect prince/knight -the king is healed thus the kingdom is healed
What led to the development of Courtly Love?
-writen by Andreas Capellanus at the request of Countess Marie of Troyes, daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine -originally written in Latin -Eleanor and Marie created a set of manners that became the standard of chivalrous behavior for knights of the time -"courts of love" were held to test the behavior of lovers to see if they held up to the standards set in Capellanus' writings -Eleanor and Marie believed that women should have love in their life and not meerly settle for the marriages for land, power, wealth, etc.
How did the Romance genre begin?
-"romance" derived from the Old French word romanz -began life as the name for a narrative poem about chivalric heroes -latter the term was applied to the distinctive love relationship commonly featured in poems