A clear memory of emotionally significant moment or event.
- Remembering what you were doing on a specific date such as 9/11.
Skills-motor and cognitive
-Knowing your sport: Baseball/Swimming
*Absent-mindedness- Inattention to details leads to encoding failure (our mind is elsewhere as we lay down the car keys).
*Transience- Storage decay over time (after we part ways with former classmates, unused information fades).
*Blocking- Inaccessibility of stored information (seeing an actor in an old movie we feel the name on the tip of our tongue but experience retrieval failure-we cannot get it out).
The disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
-Occurs when new information makes it harder to recall something you learned earlier.
-Like a second stone tossed in a pond, disrupting the waves rippling out from a first.
The disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
-Occurs when something you learned earlier disrupts your recall of something you experience later.
Living to optimal health and optimal well-being
*Example: Individualism and collectivism (doesn't break up keeps it together) having a good day but being connected to others)
Positive Psychology and Culture
The third pillar, seeks to foster a positive social ecology, including healthy families, communal neighborhoods, effective schools, socially responsible media, and civil dialogue.
*Disorganized and delusional thinking
*Inappropriate emotions and actions
Theories about the causes of mental disorders
****Movements of sun or moon
**Supernatural theories view abnormality as as a result of divine intervention, curses, demonic possession, and personal sin
**Biological/Natural theories see abnormality as similar to physical disease; a breakdown of some systems of the body
**Psychological theories see mental illness as a result of some trauma
Treatment for mental illness: Stone Age
*Beliefs thought to be predominantly supernatural
*Trephination as treatment for mental illness?
**The process of trepanation was done by drilling holes into the skull of the possessed person, therefore allowing the evil spirits to leave.
Ancient China and Mental Illness
**Predominantly a natural or biological approach to abnormality
**Concept of Yin and Yang
**Belief that emotions were a result of "vital air" flowing over certain organs.
Ancient Greece, Egypt, Rome, and Mental Illness
**Both the Egyptians and Greeks subscribed to the theory of the "wandering uterus."
**Hippocrates and the 4 humors: blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile.
**Plato believed that mental disorders were caused by the rational mind being overcome by impulse, passion, or appetite.
**"Insane" people were often confined to their homes, had their property taken away, and were not allowed to marry.
**Prior to the 11th century, mental illness was largely viewed from a natural/biological perspective.
**The Inquisition was originated as a way to identify and punish religious heretics, but "witches" and "satanists" were also arrested.
**Many of the accused witches may have been mentally ill and may have believed that they were witches; many may have also been the victims of poor nutrition or social control.
Birth of Mental Hospitals
**Patients were not well-treated in these facilities; they were often chained, locked in boxes, and put on display for a fee.
**Act for Regulating Madhouses passed in 1774.
--Designed to clean up conditions and prevent people from being unjustly committed.
--Required licensing and inspection, as well as a physician signature for admission.
--Applied only to paying patients in private institutions.
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
--Generalized anxiety disorder: A person is unexplainably and continually tense and uneasy.
--Panic disorder: A person experiences sudden episodes of intense dread.
--Phobias: Irrationally and intensely afraid of a specific object or situation.
--OCD: Troubled by repetitive thoughts or actions.
--PTST: Lingering memories, night-mares, and other symptoms for weeks after a severely threatening, uncontrollable event.
-An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
-Worry continually, and they are often jittery, agitated, and sleep-deprived.
-Concentration is difficult.
-The term anxiety is free-floating
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
- Come in Major Depressive Disorder, with its prolonged hopelessness and lethargy, and Bipolar Disorder (formerly called Manic Depressive Disorder), in which a person alternates between depression and mania, an overexcited, hyperactive state.
--Major Depressive Disorder: Occurs when at least five signs of depression last two or more weeks and are not caused by drugs or a medical condition.
--Bipolar Disorder: A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania. (Formerly called manic-depressive disorder.)
Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
-Without depression or delusions.
-Expresses anxiety, such as a fearful sensitivity to rejection that predisposes the withdrawn Avoidant Personality Disorder.
-A second cluster expresses eccentric behaviors, such as the emotionless disengagement of the Schizoid Personality Disorder.
-A third cluster exhibits dramatic or impulsive behaviors, such as the attention-getting Histrionic Personality Disorder and the self-focused and self-inflating Narcissistic Personality Disorder.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
--Person that would steal from their grandmother
Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-and the therapist's interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight.
-First of the psychological therapies.
-Psychoanalytic theory emphasizes the formative power of childhood experiences, and thus aims to unearth the past in hope of unmasking the present.
****Use has rapidly decreased in recent years.
Forgetting as Interference (Application Question)
Practice and retroactive interference
- Play baseball swing bat over shoulder then decide to play golf now need to swing down low (proactive)
- Go back to playing baseball (retroactive)
*An individuals characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
*Four basic persepectives
*Id, super-ego, ego
-Group and family therapies
*Stanford Science: Influenced by roles and when you are put in the situation.
On the subway and realized lost memory try to trace over and learn about his past but still doesn't feel connected- dissociative **e (flung from reality and identity)
*Has emphasized people's inherent potential for self-fulfillment.
--Focus on the present and future more than the past.
--Conscious rather than unconscious thoughts.
--Promoting growth instead of curing illness.
*Active listening in Client-Centered Therapy.
** Humanistic Therapies have attempted to reduce the inner conflicts by providing clients with new insights.
Difference between Humanistic Approach and Psychoanalysis?
**More interested in the present and the future, not the past.
**Focus on conscious thoughts, not unconscious thoughts.
**Taking immediate responsibility for feelings and actions, not focused on uncovering hidden determinants.
**Promoting growth rather than curing illness.
-humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers
-therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth.
-empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies.
*Teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting.
*Based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions.
*New constructive ways of thinking are introduced.
**confrontational cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis.
**vigorously challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions.
**also called rational-emotive behavior therapy by Ellis, emphasizing a behavioral "homework" component.
* Based on the fact that people make choices in interpersonal relationships.
* Whenever people gather, they make choices:
-- Where to sit or stand.
-- Who is perceived as friendly and who is not.
-- Who is rejected.
-- Who is isolated.
* Choices are always made on some basis or criterion.
*Marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
Assumes that biological, sociocultural, and psychological factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
Learning Perspective (Behavioral)
*Fear conditioning: being scared based on a fearful event (ex. getting attacked by cat as a child and having a fear of cats for life)
*Observational learning: being scared of something based on someone else's fears (ex. child and parent's fear).
Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
Criticisms of Psychoanalysis
*Interpretations are hard to refute because they cannot be proven or disproved
*Takes lots of time: 1-3 times a week
*Can be very expensive.
Emphasizes people's potential for self-fulfillment, Helps people grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance and attempts to reduce conflicts that impede natural developmental growth.
*American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition):
A widely used system for classifying psychological disorders -> Gold class standard test.
*Analyst's want patients to become aware of their resistance and interpret meanings;
Interpreting meaning is aimed at finding insight to a patient's wishes, feelings, and conflicts.
The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.
Individuals who provide therapy
*Other Professionals (ex: clergy)
*Mental health specialists.
*Does not provide the same patient-therapist involvement level as individual therapy (saves therapists' time, clients' money while often just as effective).
*Allows people to discover that others have similar problems, and they can receive group feedback as they try new behaviors.
*The theory that we explain someone's behavior by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition (ex. republican vs democrat).
*Studied conformity. 3 lines, each different size. asked college students to pick which line was most similar in size to standard line after telling them that everyone else picked the wrong one. wanted to see if SOCIAL INFLUENCE had an impact on their opinion.
*Studied obedience and social influence by using a shocker and telling others to shock based someone else based on incorrect answers.
*Most listened to what they were told to do.
*STARTING SMALL AND BUILD
*Tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
*We act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent
ex: when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes (Husband Catholic communion symbolic? or literal?)
*Stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
*Perform better with an audience.
*The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable (don't feel like their input is valuable/others will pick up slack).
*Feeling anonymous/blending into the crowd/willing to do something you wouldn't normally do alone
**Example: Mouth off to a ref from the bleachers of a football game.
*Principle that frustration - the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal - creates anger, which can generate aggression.
*Proximity: Mere exposure effect- repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
*Physical Attractiveness: Youthfulness may be associated with health and fertility.
*Similarity: Friends share common attitudes, beliefs, interests.
*Who developed an early classification system for mental disorders which is the foundation for today's DSM4?
*The more people are present during an emergency, the less likely someone will help because you think that someone will take on the responsibility.
*Our step by step approach to helping with a phobia (ex. building a tolerance to spiders).
*Milgram's study taught us that given the choice between morality and obedience...____________typically won.
What are the two main reasons why people become social loafers?
*Don't feel accountable and feel contribution is of little value.
In 2009, 9/12 completed the experiment.
*In the video, Milgram's experiment was studied again in____. What were the results?