Bio Dictionary Unit 6
Terms in this set (73)
A single celled organism cell that lacks a nucleus with a membrane.
DNA/RNA is free to move about the cell.
Any organism that cells contain a nucleus and other organelles in the membrane.
glycerol molecule, two fatty acids, and a phosphate group that form the membrane that make up the outer layer of all human cells.
The semipermeable membrane around the cytoplasm of the cell.
Rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cell of plants and fungi.
A solution with higher solute concentration compared with another.
a solution in which the concentration of solutes within the cell membrane is more inside the cell than outside of it
Movement of matter across the cell membrane that does not require energy or work.
The movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration to reach equilibrium by kinetic energy.
diffusion of water
Transport ions from one side to the other (most do not require energy)
when molecules move against the concentration gradient
used to move larger particles
The taking in of matter by a living cell by the act of turning inside out its membrane to form a vesicle.
Membrane-enclosed vesicles move to the cell surface where they fuse with the plasma membrane
what is the main function of a cell membrane?
-provides support and protection to the cell
-regulates materials that enter and leave the cell
what makes up a cell membrane?
-proteins that help with the transport of materials
-carbohydrates that help with the regulation of materials
simplest form. molecules pass through freely. channels open randomly
ligand gated channel
opens and closes in response to a chemical messenger
what do some ion channels open/close to?
light, temperature, and pressure
a channel requiring energy (ATP) to move materials across the membrane
a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell
first step Potassium/Sodium Pump
the sodium-potassium pump binds three sodium ions and a molecule of ATP
2nd step Potassium/Sodium Pump
the splitting of ATP provides energy to change the shape of the channel. The sodium ions are driven through the channel
3rd step Potassium/Sodium Pump
the sodium ions are released to the outside of the membrane, and the new shape of the handle allowed two potassium ions to bind
4th step Potassium/Sodium Pump
release of phosphate allows the channel to revert to its original form, releasing the potassium ions on the inside of the membrane
a protein helps move molecules across the membrane
what is meant by cell transport?
movement of materials across the membrane. It allows cells to take in and release materials
whether or not a molecule can pass through the cell membrane is determined by...
the size and the polarity of the molecule
how are smaller molecules like O2 and CO2 able to pass through the openings of the cell membrane
the random vibrations occurring in the membrane
what does it mean when protein channels are selective?
they only bind to specific molecules such as a particular sugar or amino acid
How does water pass through the membrane?
water molecules are small enough to pass through the membrane
What kind of molecules cannot freely cross the cell membrane?
most polar molecules
a substance dissolved in another substance
a substance that dissolves another to form a solution
What types have a cell membrane?
plant and animal
what does it mean to be hydrophilic?
the ability to mix with water
what part of the cell membrane is hydrophilic?
the head of the cell membrane of a lipid
what part of the cell membrane is hydrophobic?
the tail of the cell membrane of a lipid
which process allows cells to get rid of large/many particles at once?
active transport and exocytosis
what is needed for an ion pump to function?
ATP or energy is needed
Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic? DNA/RNA is free to move around the cell
Role of lipids in a cell membrane
provide the barrier that marks the boundaries of a cell- make up the lipid bilayer
Role of protein in a cell membrane
help with the transport of materials
Role of carbohydrates in a cell membrane
help with the regulation of materials and recognition of the cell
What are different examples of active transport
sodium-ion pump, exocytosis
examples of passive transport
diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis.
Vesicle/Lysosomes in cell transport
remove particles from the cell that are no longer needed
Cell membrane in cell transport
allows materials in and out of the cell
flagella in cell transport
helps cell move to different locations
cilia in cell transport
helps liquids move past surface of the cell
golgi apparatus in cell transport
packages materials to be sent to specific locations throughout the cell
cytoplasm in cell transport
area in which material will move around
cell wall in cell transport
allows materials in and out of pores
nucleus in cell division
provides instruction in what the cells need to do- it disappears and reforms once DNA has moved to opposite ends of cell
centrioles in cell division
create spindle fibers that help DNA move to opposite sides of cell
chromosomes in cell division
tightly packed DNA- makes division easier
DNA in cell division
cell membrane in cell division
splits- creates cleavage of cell
nucleolus in making proteins
ribosomes in making proteins
site of protein creators
nucleus in making proteins
helps DNA and RNA
Rough ER in making proteins
ribosomes attach to the outer surface
DNA/Chromosomes in making proteins
information for making proteins
Nuclear membrane in making proteins
allows RNA to leave nucleus
golgi apparatus in making proteins
after protein is created it sends off proteins to other places
stores and creates lipids and helps detoxify organic compounds
Mitochondria in making energy
creates ATP by converting sugar
nucleus in making energy
chloroplast in making energy
creates solar energy into chemical energy (glucose)
cytoplasm in making energy
vacuole in making energy
store food and nutrients for the cell
cell membrane in making energy
allows nutrients in and out of cell