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Key Terms Chapter 10 Industrial Revolution
Terms in this set (74)
Assembly line manufacturing
Production is divided into steps. Standardized interchangeable parts are made and each worker or robot does one part.
"Cross of Gold" Speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
Economies of scale
Factors that cause a producer's average cost per unit to fall as output rises.
A ritual the Sioux performed to bring back the buffalo and return the Native American tribes to their land.
The gold standard
Many governments promised to exchange their currency for gold at an established rate
Gospel of wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
Laissez faire economics
Theory that opposes governmental interference in economic affairs beyond what is necessary to protect life and property.
Corporations that gain complete control of the production of a single good or service.
The New South
Phrase coined by Henry Grady which referenced industrialization in GA
A group of corrupt men that helped the poor/immigrants find homes and jobs, apply for citizenship and voting rights. In return, expected community members to vote as they were instruction.
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
The silver standard
Standard of money system that Populist party supported
A social theory which states that the level a person rises to in society and wealth is determined by their genetic background. "Survival of the fittest"
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
A system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns and controls the means of production.
Housing in the city where many factory workers where forced to live in one room apartments and the conditions where very unsanitary.
Firms or corporations that combine for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices (establishing a monopoly).
Movement to secure voting rights for women, eventually achieved with the 19th amendment
Haymarket Square Riot
A demonstration of striking laborers in Chicago in 1886 that turned violent, killing a dozen people and injuring over a hundred.
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing
Wounded Knee Massacre
In December 1890, Army troops captured some of Sitting Bull's followers and took them to a camp. 300 Sioux men, women, and children were killed
American Federation of Labor
1886; founded by Samuel Gompers; sought better wages, hrs, working conditions; skilled laborers, arose out of dissatisfaction with the Knights of Labor, rejected socialist and communist ideas, non-violent.
American Socialist party
Political party formed in 1901 and led by Eugene Debs that advocated replacing the nation's capitalist system, wanted to help the working class
American Suffrage Association
Fought for women's suffrage amendments to state constitutions
A Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist who founded the Carnegie Steel Company in 1892. By 1901, his company dominated the American steel industry.
23rd President; Republican, poor leader, introduced the McKinley Tariff and increased federal spending to a billion dollars
Booker T Washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
A political boss (head of Tammany Hall) who carried corruption to new extremes, and cheated the city out of more than $100 million
Chester A Arthur
Appointed customs collector for the port of New York - corrupt and implemented a heavy spoils system. He was chosen as Garfield's running mate. Garfield won but was shot, so Arthur became the 21st president.
Leader of Nez Perce. Fled with his tribe to Canada instead of reservations. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations
Colored Farmers' Alliance
More than 1 million southern black farmers organized and shared complaints with poor white farmers. By 1890 membership numbered more than 250,000. The history of racial division in the South, made it hard for white and black farmers to work together in the same org.
A railroad owner who built a railway connecting Chicago and New York. He popularized the use of steel rails in his railroad, which made railroads safer and more economical.
Wrote Looking Backward; said that captialism supported the few and exploited the many. character wakes up in 2000 after napping; says socialism will be on top in the end
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
A pioneer in the women's suffrage movement, she helped organize the first women's rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. She later helped edit the militant feminist magazine Revolution from 1868 - 1870.
Eugene v Debs
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over
groups of farmers, or those in sympathy with farming issues, who sent lecturers from town to town to educate people about agricultural and rural issues
Frederick Jackson Turner
American historian who said that humanity would continue to progress as long as there was new land to move into. The frontier provided a place for homeless and solved social problems.
Originally a social organization between farmers, it developed into a political movement for government ownership of railroads
Democrat (1885-1889) and (1893-1897) His presidency represented no sharp break with the conservative policies of his predecessors except in opposing governmental favors to business but was noteworthy for railroad regulation and tariff reform. He had a strictly limited view of the government's role in both economic and social matters- limited government. Dawes Act and Pullman Strike.
He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.
an early leader in the civil rights movement. She documented the extent of lynching in the United States, and was also active in the women's rights movement and the women's suffrage movement.
1880; Republican; president for only 4 months before being assassinated by Charles Guiteau; promoted civil service reform
John D Rockefeller
Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history
(1838-1914) Naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California.
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Also helped Edison establish the Edison company to commercialize electricity. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
Las Gorras Blancas
the White Caps, group of Mexican Americans living in New Mexico who attempted to protect their land and way of life from encroachment by white landowners.
a dressmaker in Chicago until a fire destroyed her business. She then devoted her life to the cause of workers. Supported striking railroad workers in Pittsburg, and traveled around the country organizing coal miners and campaigning for improved working conditions. Helped pave the way for reform.
Knights of Labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Rutherford B hayes
19th president of the united states, was famous for being part of the Hayes-Tilden election in which electoral votes were contested in 4 states, most corrupt election in US history
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
The Sierra Club
One of the Nation's oldest and largest environmental groups, one that has a long history of protecting national parks
"Stalwarts and half-breeds"
Stalwarts were the conservatives of the Republican Party that opposed the existing patronage and opposed friendly relations between the North and South, while Half-breeds were the more liberal Republicans and wanted reforms of patronage under Rutherford B. Hayes. Patronage is rotation of office.
Established in 1870, it was a integrated multinational oil corporation lead by Rockefeller
Susan B. Anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
The largest steel company of the US, created by J.P. Morgan by merging Andrew Carnegie's Carnegie Steel and several other steel companies together; at the time, the largest corporation in existence.
William H Seward
Secretary of State under Lincoln and Johnson, he set the precedent of American involvement in everything that happened in the Western hemisphere, including the purchase of Alaska and invoking the Monroe Doctrine to force France out of Mexico
William Jennings Bryan
United States lawyer and politician who advocated free silver and prosecuted John Scopes (1925) for teaching evolution in a Tennessee high school (1860-1925)
25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist
state educational institutions built with the benefit of federally donated lands
Community centers located in the slums and near tenements that gave aid to the poor, especially immigrants
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
1887 law that distributed reservation land to individual Native American owners
Department of the Interior
Established to manage National Parks System, natural resources, Indian affairs, dams, and water power
Interstate Commerce Act
Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices
Jim Crow laws
Laws designed to enforce segregation of blacks from whites
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history, this led to decline in Republican votes
Open Door Policy
Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.
Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
Plessy v Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
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