the reaction of the organism to the unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
the neutral stimulus turns into a conditioned stimulus after being paired with a conditioned unconditioned stimulus.
Conditioned response (CR)
the reaction of the organism to the conditioned stimulus.
if we could have complete knowledge of past experiences and the environment of an organism, we could predict exactly what the organism will do.
a form of learning in which one stimulus comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus. EX: Pavlov
ignore behavior (ex: temper tantrums)
replacing the undesired conditioned response with a more favorable/desired one
small doses of fearful thing
introduce stimulus and prevent escape
human beings and other animals learn in similar ways
conditioned stimulus must displayed enough without the unconditioned stimulus in order for the conditioned response to disappear
is when you use an intense association to that can change you're the way you reaction to some things
When you take away the CS after extinction; you still get a response after a moment of time.
when you use two neutral stimuli are presented together to get one same response. Then individually one becomes the CS and the other is still able to get a CR.
When you associated similar stimuli to CS that creates the same CR
In order for a UCS to follow, a CS has to happen.
Subjects can tell the difference between two different stimuli.
One stimulus is paired with another and then when the second stimulus is used it still get the same effect.
(the office example) 1.process begins when an Unconditioned Stimulus (US or UCS) elicits a natural/reflexive, Unconditioned Response (UR or UCR). 2.Through repeated pairing of a Neutral Stimulus (NS) and the Unconditioned Stimulus (US or UCS); the organism will associate the two stimuli together. 3.When the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) brings forth a response without the Unconditioned Stimulus (US), a Conditioned Response (CR) occurs
increases the frequency of a response (behavior) it follows. For a reinforcer to be effective it must consistently and as immediately as possible, follow a response.
are built in needs- food, water, social contact
are associated with a primary reinforcer- like money, which is associated with the power to obtain (desirable object)
presents a stimulus; Decreases frequency of response ex: electric fence
decreases the frequency of a response it follows. Punishment 1:presents an aversive stimulus, and Punishment 2: removes stimulus.
removes a stimulus- not necessarily a positive one, removal of pain or discomfort is still negative reinforcement
buying a new toy if the child behaves.
Going out for ice cream or dinner with the child as a reward. The social aspect.
going outside and playing catch with the child.
all of these reinforcers improve learning.
improving the child's confidence by telling them how great they are.
(Removing a stimulus or event) Ex. Traffic or If your child is acting up in a public place, you take them away from the public.
humans and nonhumans tend to behave in ways that bring them desirable consequences or enable them to avoid unpleasant ones
(Thorndike) theory of learning that emphasized role of experience in strengthening and weakening of the stimulus response connections
(Skinner) response that's followed by a reinforcer is strengthened and more likely to occur again
Effective forms of punishment:
Time-out, Response-cost, verbal reprimand, restitution, In-house suspension. Must be strong, clear, consistent, and have one warning
1. Can reinforce behavior in non-punishing situations 2. Can lead to undesirable emotional responses 3. Does not show the correct behavior
Hitting, slapping, kicking, punching, spanking, shaking, shoving, choking, painful body postures (e.g., closet), electric shock, excessive exercise, prevention of bathroom use.
Effective forms of punishment:
Eye contact method Never use physical force Token Economy Group contingency
The Eye-Contact Method
By using assertive body language, student becomes socially uncomfortable. 1. turn and face the student 2. say student's name in a straight, flat tone 3. make eye-contact. lean toward student and extend your hand. Say "good" and stay for 3 seconds, staring at the students.
*behaviors are identifiable in measurable terms *Environmental conditions that may be encouraging problem are identified *Treatment is monitored for progress and phased out after desired behavior is acquired
(Mastery Learning), Small, discrete units, A logical sequence, Demonstration of mastery, Observable criterion for mastery, Remedial activities
approach to instruction;students must learn the material in one lesson to a high level of proficiency before the next level. Based in part of the concept of Shaping.
General Principles of Social Cognitive Theory
Learning can occur without a change in behavior.People have control over their actions and environments.*Cognition plays a role in learning:Awareness, expectations, attention, retention
Two words or ideas are associated by a word or phrase E.g., My friend's name is Chilico. I think of Chili Company.
Method of Loci
Locate items mentally at landmarks along a familiar route
Hang items mentally on a pegword list EX: One is a bun, Two is a shoe, ...etc
Create a story where items appear in order
Find English word that sounds like foreign word Form visual image of keyword w/ English equivalent EX: Span. word "carta" means "letter."
Superimposed Meaningful Structure
Familiar structure (sentence, acronym) is imposed on material. E.g., Great Lakes of North America =HOMES
External Retrieval Cues
Physical object to help remember EX: sticky note on computer, car dashboard, or wallet.
internal state that arouses, pushes, drives
General Effects of Motivation
•It increases energy and activity level •It directs you toward certain goals •Sometimes achievement linked to fact child hasn't mastered content and doesn't perform well. This assumes child is trying. •It promotes initiation of and persistence in certain activities •It affects the learning strategies and cognitive processes used
-Source of motivation lies outside the individual and the task -Rewarded or punished *EX: taking out the trash because it smells, wife yells, need room for more garbage
(enjoy in free-time) Flow-intense form of intrinsic motivation where you are so into the activity that you lose track of time
do things to make it less likely to success:justify by: -Setting high goals-Procrastinating-Taking on too much-Reducing effort-Cheating-Using alcohol or drugs
doing things to protect one's sense of competence
Sense of being capable of successfully executing tasks
Magic Marker Ex of Overjustification
By giving them too much (extrinsic motivation) they destroyed the intrinsic motivation
feel socially connected, part of a community like pets. Don't need a lot of attention but still wants to be connected.
Degree to which a person wants and needs friendly relationships with others
Characteristics of Student with high need for Affiliation
nervous, Communicate often with others, Easily influenced, Select incompetent friend over competent non-friend, lower GPA
Desire to look good to others
Characteristics of Student with high need for Approval
low self-esteem, relatively unpopular with peers (they talk more than listen), trying to sound impressive
Characteristics of Student with high need for Achievement
realistic about tasks, ok to occasionally fail, higher standards, delay gratification, stereotypically appropriate for gender
The Role of Affect
feelings, emotions, moods
High arousal is best for easy or automatic tasks but low or medium arousal is best for more difficult tasks.
Component of intrinsic motivation (read books, watch movies, etc.. is different. Interesting doesn't have to be enjoyable.)
Relatively stable over time
Relatively unstable, something new, unusual, or surprising
M= E x V
Motivation is the product of Expectancy and Value. *E- what expectancy do you have of completing the task. (1-10) V- value you place in being successful in task (1-10)
desire to achieve competence by acquiring new knowledge or mastering a skill.
desire to look competent
Effects of Achievement goals
find learning activities meaningful and try to make most of them (involves: mastery learning and intrinsic motivation)
result of none or little motivation (avoid putting work in no matter what)
explanations for success and failure
Stable-Internal (Class was to hard, I'm really smart)
Unstable-Internal (I worked hard and earned the grade)
Stable-External (Class was too easy, I'm stupid)
Unstable-External (only read a few pages but what was on test)
how individual interprets events and consequences
I-can-do-it attitude: My success and failures are due to how hard I try. (Effort)
Locus of Control Theory:
the extent to which individuals believe that they can control events that affect them.
Internalized Motivation; tell kids to make bed,
Internalized Motivation; seeking approval before you ask them to make it
Internalized Motivation; recognizes cleanliness, have things clean
Internalized Motivation; make bed, and now also cleaning trash, dishes, toothbrush