Information system strategy

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In an article in Harvard Business Review, Thomas Davenport (2006) argued that the latest strategic weapon for companies is ________.
analytical decision making
The term data mining was originally used to ________.
describe the process through which previously unknown patterns in data were discovered
On the commercial side, the most common use of data mining has been in ________ sectors.
finance, retail, and health care
Business analytics and data mining provided 1-800-Flowers with all of the following benefits except:
increased mailings and response rates
Data mining is tightly positioned at the intersection of many disciplines. Those disciplines include all of the following except:
logistics
A query that can be run by an end user and is not programmed in advance is considered a(n) ________ query.
ad hoc
What is a major characteristic of data mining?
data mining tools are readily combined with spreadsheets and other software development tools
At the highest level of abstraction, data can be classified as ________ and ________.
categorical; numerical
Data that has a meaningful, or nonarbitrary, zero point is ________ data.
ratio
Numeric data represent the numeric values of specific variables, which are ________ variables that can take on an infinite number of fractional values.
continuous
Data mining seeks to identify patterns in the data. All of the following are major types of patterns except:
regression
________, or supervised induction, is perhaps the most common of all data mining tasks. Its objective is to analyze the historical data stored in a database and automatically generate a model that can predict future behavior.
classification
________ are essentially a hierarchy of if-then statements. They are most appropriate for categorical and interval data.
decision trees
________ data mining begins with a proposition by the user, who then seeks to validate the truthfulness of the proposition. For example, a marketing manager may begin with the following proposition: "Are BluRay player sales related to sales of HDTV sets?"
hypothesis-driven
Because the data mining is driven by experience and experimentation, depending on the problem situation and the analyst's knowledge, the whole process can be ________ and ________, i.e., one should expect to go back and forth through the steps quite a few times.
time consuming; iterative
Because the latter steps in the data mining process are built on the outcome of the former ones, one should:
pay extra attention to the earlier steps in order not to put the whole study on an incorrect path from the onset
The simple split methodology splits the data into two mutually exclusive subsets called a ________ set and a ________ set.
training; test
A good question to ask with respect to the patterns/relationships that association rule mining can discover is "Are all association rules interesting and useful?" In order to answer such a question, association rule mining uses two common metrics ________ and ________.
support; confidence
Because of their ability to model highly complex real-world problems, researchers and practitioners have found many uses for ________.
neutral networks
A vast majority of business data are stored in text documents that are ________.
virtually unstructured
Text mining is the semi-automated process of extracting ________ from large amounts of unstructured data sources.
all of the above
All of the following are popular application areas of text mining except:
data structuring
________ is a branch of the field of linguistics and a part of natural language processing that studies the internal structure of words.
morphology
Using ________ as a rich source of knowledge and a strategic weapon, Kodak not only survives but excels in its market segment defined by innovation and constant change.
patent analysis
It has been shown that the bag-of-word method may not produce good enough information content for text mining tasks. More advanced techniques such as ________ are needed.
natural language processing
Why will computers probably not be able to understand natural language the same way and with the same accuracy that humans do?
a true understanding of meaning requires extensive knowledge of a topic beyond what is in the words, sentences, and paragraphs
At a very high level, the text mining process consists of each of the following tasks except:
create log frequencies
In ________, the problem is to group an unlabelled collection of objects, such as documents, customer comments, and Web pages into meaningful groups without any prior knowledge.
clustering
The two main approaches to text classification are ________ and ________.
knowledge engineering; machine learning
Commercial software tools include all of the following except:
GATE
Why does the Web pose great challenges for effective and efficient knowledge discovery?
the Web is too dynamic
A simple keyword-based search engine suffers from several deficiencies, which include all of the following except:
web mining can identify authoritative Web pages
Which of the following is not one of the three main areas of Web mining?
Web search mining
Which of the following refers to developing useful information from the links included in the Web documents?
Web structure mining
A ________ is one or more Web pages that provide a collection of links to authoritative pages, reference sites, or a resource list on a specific topic.
hub
All of the following are types of data generated through Web page visits except:
hyperlink analysis
When registered users revisit Amazon.com, they are greeted by name. This task involves recognizing the user by ________.
reading a cookie
Which of the following is a reason why BI projects fail?
all of the above
Major objectives for BI software integration include all of the following except:
improving dashboard design
A multitiered application architecture consists of:
Web browser, Web server, application server, and database server
Privacy has long been a(n) ________ issue.
all of the above
One of the significant differences between Web 2.0 and the traditional Web is the ________ of Web 2.0.
greater collaboration among Internet users and other users, content providers, and enterprises
MySpace and Facebook, Wikipedia and YouTube are examples of ________.
online social networks
A primary reason why Facebook has expanded so rapidly is the ________, which refers to the principle that more users means more value.
network effect
The intention of ________ is to achieve a feeling of telepresence and participation from a distance.
virtual worlds
Which is not a major advantage of using Second Life for decision support?
pranksters and spam are filtered out
Although virtual worlds are becoming interesting tools for businesses and consumers, several factors have kept them from gaining widespread acceptance. Which of the following is one of those factors?
requires downloading of a plug-in
Today, collaboration on decisions that are more strategic in nature than ever before--decisions that may transform the business--involves nonroutine activities such as ________ discovering, innovating, creating and leading teams, learning, and relating.
brainstorming
What is the difference between active and passive RFID tags?
active tags have a battery as their own power source and do not need a reader to energize them like passive tags do
The most commonly used data representation for RFID technology is the:
Electronic Product Code (EPC)
RFID tag data for products consist of the following information except:
carrier
Gillette has used RFID to determine whether stores have stocked their shelves with particular items for a particular promotion. They found that in those stores that used RFID to move a product from the backroom to the shelf before a promotion started, sales were ________ than those that did not move the product in a timely manner.
48 percent higher
The success of today's highly volatile perishables supply chains depends on:
the level and timeliness of product visibility
Many devices in use by consumers and business people are constantly sending out their ________.
location information
RFID generates major data streams ready for analysis through BI technologies. Another massive data source is emerging, along with the data mining technologies to make sense of the data, which is referred to as ________.
reality mining
By analyzing and learning from these large-scale patterns of movement, Sense Networks is now adapting this general technology to help consumers find people with similar interests. This application is called ________.
Citysense
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