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53 terms

Art History Final Exam

20th century art styles
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Fauvism
1st modern style. Brilliant arbitrary color, spontaneous, heightened response to nature, flat space, optimistic. Movement concerned with the liberation of color and the formal structure of a work of art. title which means "wild beast." Henri Matisse and Derain
Henri Matisse
The leader of this fauvism and called the genius of omission. who painted pictures of revolutionary simplicity and high chroma, arbitrary color. A French painter and sculptor known for his brilliant colors and bold brush strokes and had a major influence on modern art.
Derain
French painter and exponent of Fauvism , Dots and dashes of burning. Expressive and bold directional brushstrokes. elimination.
German Expressionism
Gothic twist on Fauvism in use of color; primitive approach to figures, often violent messages (social protest). Stressed intense & subjective emotion, used inner feelings rather than depicting outward appearances, used deliberate distortions to assault and shock their audience, dark ideas, disturbed states of being
Kandinsky
part of group called Blue Rider which was a group of artists working on ideas of expressionism; experimented with representation for awhile and was the 1st to do total abstraction and to make a work for the sake of the beauty of the colors and lines together. musical references
Nolde
one of the only expressionists to paint a biblical scene, Bridge Group; Mask still life; focused outside Europe, painted disturbing things; Nazi who was a special target of Hitler's
Kirchner
was the leader of an important German Expressionist group (Die Brucke) that hoped to build a bridge to a better, more enlightened future through their art.
Cubism
Influenced by cezanne and African sculpture several viewpoints shown simultaneously, fragmented view, interlocking planes, subdued colors ar first with emphasis on form, flat abiguous space; subjects: still life, single figures, collages (Picasso and Braque)
Picasso
Spanish founder of cubism, sought to create a new visual reality and provoke revolutionary upheaval; his figures are broken into large, flat planes with dislocated body parts; used African masks- anticipates the new art movements- sets collage trend
Braque
French painter who led the cubist movement, developed cubism along with Picasso, historians were often unable to tell their work apart
Futurism
Cubism in motion, Italian movement, dynamic compositions
Boccioni
Italian Futurist, subject: Miracles of Contemporary Life such as railroads, ocean liners, and airplanes. Sculptor and painter
De Stijl
Dutch post-WWI movement that believed that their style revealed the underlying structure of existence; art was simplistic and used primary colors and horizontal and vertical lines (invented by Piet Mondrian); art should have spiritual values and a social purpose.
Mondrain
"The emotion of beauty is always obstructed by the appearance of the object. Therefore, the object must be eliminated from the picture".
Reitveld
architect Netherlands, De Stijl. More concentrated on product design
Dada
Revolutionary, anarchic movement by artists and writers aimed at destroying art as an aesthetic cult and replace it with anti-art. Zurich, Paris, NYC. Rejection of modern society in favor of anarchy in art and politics (Duchamp)
Duchamp
French artist who immigrated to the United States, a leader in the Dada movement in NYC; was first to exhibit commonplace objects as art , was famous for his "ready mades", objects purchased and then presented as sculptures with virtually no alterations. What is art?
Surrealism
acknowledged supremacy of irrational association & imaginative insight. Influenced by theories of Freud. Two directions: 1. Automatism (non objective) 2. Realistic elaborate, bizzare dream images (Miro, Dali, Ernst, Magritte, DiChirico, Oppenheim)
Miro
Spanish surrealist painter, One of the leaders of the Surrealism that kept his studio filled with children's toys for inspiration and amusement; therefore his paintings were very childlike
Dali
surrealist Spanish painter, work that featured a super-realistic rendering of a dream-like landscape
Ernst
automatic drawing- painter (born in Germany, resident of France and the United States) who was a cofounder of Dadaism, developed the technique of collage. Paint transfer and rubbings.
Magritte
Belgian surrealist painter, a surrealist and his work was done with attention to realistic detail, calls into question our assumptions about the reality of our world "don't confuse the imagery with reality"
Suprematism...........
Russian school, square shapes of one color. (Malevich), an art movement focused on fundamental geometric forms (in particular the square and circle) which formed in Russia in 1915-1916.
Abstract Expressionism
Dominance in NY- spontaneous personal expression; influenced by Surrealism, Cubism, and German Expressionism "Action painting" Large variety of styles, very large canvases, mainly non-objective; highly emotional (Pollock and DeKooning)
Pollock
Artist famous for large drip paintings. A leader of abstract expressionism in America. important in 50s
DeKooning
European in US; painted then scraped off paint; Abstract Expressionism, created paintings in his Women Series. strong visual brushwork
Pop Art
Celebrates imagery and technique of mass media, advertising and popular culture; reaction against obscurity of image in Abstract Expressionism. silkscreening. Presents everyday objects as art (Warhol, Oldenburg, Lichtenstein, Johns, Rauschenburg)
Warhol
United States artist who was a leader of the pop art movement, lived a flamboyant, public life, started with store windows, used repetition/car accidents/electric chairs/social icons
Oldenburg
a pop art sculptor who created large sculptures of everyday objects installed in new contexts resultiung in humor, created over-life-sized commonplace things.
Lichtenstein
comic book imagery but hand painted; depicts American heroism/melodrama, not very intellectual, Described pop art as industrial painting. Used Benday dots.
Jasper Johns
one of the artists pivotal to the early development of American Pop. Although Pop began in England, America with its more mature consumer culture was a fertile ground for its growth. He created a series of targets, flags number and alphabets.
Rauschenburg
oil painting with collage combined paintings. Rebus
Color field (Formalist)
Outgrowth of Abstract Expressionism. Large canvases with areas of simple colors. Large, Non-objective shapes (Rothko, Frankenthaler)
Rothko
United States abstract painter (born in Russia) whose paintings are characterized by horizontal bands of color with indistinct boundaries, the father of the color field styles of painting
Frankenthaler
unprimed canvase, stains & pours; light/fluidity/spirituality Color-field painting, devolped a technique where paint was thinned to soak into the canvas in great sweeps of color
Minimal Art
Sculpture and painting: sculpture-reassertion of the physical reality of the art object, non objective (Painters: Kelly, Stella -- Sculptors: Judd, Smith, Andre)
Ellsworth Kelly
minimalist painter, called hard-edge painting; it pared down the painting into spare elemental images with the smooth color appearing two-dimensional.
Frank Stella
United States minimalist painter, was a hard-edge painter who used shaped canvas. He said " what you see is what you see" Post Painterly Abstraction
Donald Judd
was a minimalist who used industrial material steel, brass and plexiglass- Machine made objects
Tony Smith
United States sculptor, was a minimalist who created basic geometric forms , which reduced the forms to their "objecthood"
Carl Andre
Minimalist, Arranges identical pre-made units in simple geometric arrangements horizontally on ground, Bricks, metal plates, etc. Works dismantled when not on display. USA. artist used to work on railroads. art should have a connection with earth.
Photo Realism
Virtual realism in painting; 20 century everyday scenes as subjects (store fronts, diners, man made objects, portraits) Artists: Richard Estes
Richard Estes
Store Fronts, created Central Savings, which involves transferring the artist's photograh to the canvas through a variety of techniques?, Incorporates the use of reflections. Regarded as the grand master of the photorealists.
Op Art
Non objective, strong, geometric color contrasts, visual illusions
Preformance Art
Combines are and theatre. Redefines art in terms of human activities, not objects
Installation art
The creation of an entire enviroment in a room or gallery space
Late Modernism
Neo-expressionism, return to the figure, artist's moods and fantasies as subject. Abandonment of visual refinement in favor of expressionism. Valid multi-cultural references.
Frank Lloyd Wright
Prairie style houses, low, horizontal emphasis, natural materials, rectangular emphasis, open spaces. Considered America's greatest architect. Pioneered the concept that a building should blend into and harmonize with its surroundings rather than following classical designs.
Walter Gropius
Continuous glass walled industrial buildings, geometric shapes, United States architect (born in Germany) and founder of the Bauhaus school that embraced all creative arts- International style Architecture esp.
Malevich
Russian suprematist painter- supreme reality based on geometry- feeling over object. He was a pioneer of geometric abstract art and the originator of the Avant-garde Suprematist movement.
DiChirico
This surrealist artist became a hero of painters and poets of Surrealism when he produced a series of strange, dreamlike cityscapes. Random objects put together- sense of anticipation
Oppenheim
Surrealism., fur-lined teacup
Mies Rohe
created of modern skyscrappers. Bauhaus leader