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when there is constant disjunction between job demands and worker resources,loss of enthusiasm, excitement in ones work


good stress, has benefits, realistic training modules


negative results, strain that develops as a person becomes more engulfed in their job role--some people can adapt but eventually produces harmful effects

general adaption syndrome

patterened response of reaction to stress, 3 stages

Alarm reaction stage

1st stage body responds to threat and increases production of hormones and heicals, stimulates sympathetic system(heart and lungs), increase heart beat, adrenaline pumps body so it is in state of alert/readiness

Resistance Stage

2nd stage Increase in hormone production to keep up with level of threat(situation doesn't stop), final spurt of energy


final stage body runs out of fuel, physically recuperate and get replenished via sleep and relaxation

Intra-Individual sources of stress

depends on individuals perceptions and internal factors, reaction to same stressor may change,personality is factor, glass ceiling tills someone higher up gets fired or quits, Interaction btw sources of stress, how they are perceived and person characteristics determine whether coping or maladaptive behavior will result

Inter-Individual Sources of stress

stress from interaction between people, b/c come in contact with so many diff people-risk of exposure to medical conditions, not 100% of acceptance of minority officers

organizational sources of stress

shift work messes up circadian rhythm, equipment problems, citizen complaints-regarding officer misconduct/disrespect, doesnt matter how petty, effects evaluations, transfer request, promotion opportunities

rotating shift

day, evening, graveyard, messes up diurnal(day,night) pattern

circadian rhythm

human bodies 24hr cycle, patterns all our physiological fucntions

vila and kenney

police fatigue 80 hr work week

environmental sources of stress

officers feel rejected/negative feelings toward public/community, the cjs, threat of danger


officers have to make schedules accommodate to subpoenas/court appearances, officers distrust CJS, cops beaten at their own game b/c they don't know criminal laws and court procedure

twilight zone

outraged when system fails to punish criminals

Threat of arrest and punishment is devalued so...

officers find alternatives (violence)

threat of danger

consistently reminded of their vulnerability, hall of heroes-fallen comrades

symbolic assailant

young, minority males in run down areas of town(officer behaviors toward them might be due to past experiences)

consequences of police stress

many agencies ignore that police officers are not superhuman/robots, sick time abuse, officers impolite


disease and sickness


causes of death

death certificates

patient's history, physical remains, autopsy if necessary, cause of death, birth place, race, age, sex and last know occupation, used to analyze morbidity and mortality patterns

Fell, Richard, and Wallace

looked at death certificates and hospital records when seen as stress related or not-- police officers have shorter life spans

officers are __ likely to die from stress related causes than other workers


circulatory or heart disease

leading cause of death

non fatal disease

stress induced disorders, digestive tract maladies (ulcers, colon cancer)

vana and marshall

looked at people in NYPD for 5 years, officers=higher death rate from cancer(stomach types),

longer you were an officer

more likely to have circulatory/heart disease

being a police officer =

increase odds of premature death from heart disease and stomach cancer

mortality rates linked to...

dietary patterns, stress, and adrenaline

normal drinker

drinks on typical circumstances, doesn't have cravings

Alcohol dependent person

drinks daily, doesn't consider self to be hooked, drink too much but believe they can stop if they want to


lost self control, drinks excessively, alcohol dominates life


amount of officers admit to drinking on duty


officers that have a daily minimum dosage of 3 drinks


more officers die yearly by this than those that are killed by criminals


officers who will be separated or divorced in next 3 years

stress management

any attempt to control or reduce the amount of stress someone experiences

witness management units

avoid unpleasantness of waiting for court, reduce handling of witnesses, can call the night before to make sure on schedule

stand by status

officer gives phone # and will be there within 30 minutes of being notified


preventative form of coping, exercise, nutrition, no smoking, combat heart and lung problems

stress inoculation

teach people to recognize the signs of oncoming stress and to counter with relaxation techniques

post shooting trauma

emotional aftermath for an officer who uses fatal force in the line of duty(shock and second-guessing self)

policy guideline

necessary to prevent "unarticulated improvisation"

Alpert and Smith

agency needs a mission statement (guides and explains top priorities)


allegation was false(25%)


incident did take place but officer behaved in a lawful, proper manner(23%)

Not sustained

insufficient evidence to either prove or disprove claim(34%)


available evidence supports the allegation of improper behavior(8%)

Wingarten rules

guidelines formed aimed to protect employees from overzealous employer invasions/intrusions

garity rule

if an officer is the subject of an IA investigation with criminal conduct then a commanding officer cannot order that officer to respond to questions


a wrongful act that one party commits against another person, produces injury or damage

intentional torts

refers to commission of some act that carries reasonable certainty of injury to another party

negligence tort

failure to act reasonably in a situation where it is easy to see than an officers conduct may cause harm to another


studied agency self reports of civil liability lawsuits and found consistencies, departments that embraced community policing and proactive campaigns at hiring minority officers -fewer lawsuits and complaints

old established professions

tradtition careers; doctors, lawer, university professors

new professions

natural and social scientists


occupations, teachers, nurses, and social workers

would be professions

people who would like to gain recognition as professionals but lack important characteristics

marginal professions

people who may work very closely with professionals(paralegals dental techs, lab assistant) they are still in subservient role

code of ethics

emphasizes 2 virtues, integrity and responsibility to clients

dirty work

distasteful tasks that have to get done but most pepople want to avoid doing(embalming and preparing dead body for burial)


purpose is to get better gains through collective bargaining

collective bargaining

process where employer and employees, represented through a recognized union, negotiate a formal written agreement over wages, hours and conditions of employment

blue flu

mass amount of sick calls to HQ and don't report to work as scheduled(type of police strike)

work slowdown

refusal to write parking tickets or refuse to issue traffic citations(police strike)

Ticket blizzard

officers ticket as many motorists as possible and arrest all the minor violators they can find, clutter daily operations of courts, create citizen complaint

thin blue line

symbolizes the balance between democracy and anarchy(police protect peaceful citizens from those who are criminals


a law enforcement agency complies with a number of operational standards that are aimed at fighting crime more effectively, delivering police services more efficiently, promoting better cooperation with other segments of the CJSS and all while maintaining the public's support

vicarious liability

a supervisor is responsible for the actions of employees under his or her supervision


commits the wrongful act against someone


the party that the wrongful act is committed against


the state can revoke a law enforcement officer's license for such things as insubordination, gross immorality, habitual drunkenness, willful neglect of duty, incompetency, or willful misconduct


it is his or her duty to help unfortunate others who are unable to fend for themselves

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