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200 terms

MGT 300 Test 3

STUDY
PLAY
Wally
Dilbert's coworker that does as little as possible
disparate treatment
Darlene Jespersen worked in a sports bar. She was an outstanding employee, but she didn't wear makeup because she felt it "took away her credibility" and interfered with her ability to be an effective bartender, which sometimes required her to deal with unruly, intoxicated guests. This changed when the sports bar implemented a "beverage department image transformation" program. Female employees were told they would be fired if they did not wear makeup. Jespersen contended that it was an example of ____ because male employees did not have to wear makeup.
piecework
One of the reasons items manufactured in Southeast Asia are imported into the United States less expensively is that workers are paid a small amount of money for each item produced. The manufacturers operating in Southeast Asia use what type of pay plan?
conduct a job analysis
Before beginning to recruit, organizations must ____.
defamation lawsuits
Which of the following is a legal problem employers may encounter in seeking, providing, or using employment references as part of the selection process?
structured
The ____ interview uses only standardized, job-related interview questions that are prepared ahead of time and asked of all candidates
background checks
A study in the construction industry found that when equipment is stolen from building sites, workers are the culprits 82 percent of the time. Which type of selection information would employers in the construction industry receive the greatest benefit from if their goal is to stop employee theft?
cognitive ability test
Which of the following types of tests accurately predicts job performance in almost all kinds of jobs?
Validation refers to the process of determining how well a selection test or procedure predicts future job performance.
Which of the following statements about job validation tests is true?
Employee-related laws apply to job application forms and résumés.
Which of the following statements about résumés and job application forms is true?
true
Job analysis is a purposeful and systematic process of collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job.
only after a job offer has been made
According to the Americans with Disabilities Act, disabilities (and reasonable accommodations for them) should be discussed ____.
Sexual harassment can occur between people of the same sex.
Which of the following statements about sexual harassment is true?
career paths
Which of the following is an internal recruiting method?
hierarchical pay
Which of the following is NOT an example of a pay-variability decision used to motivate employee performance?
false
The hostile work environment form of sexual harassment occurs when employment outcomes such as hiring, promotion, or simply keeping one's job depend on whether an individual submits to being sexually harassed.
work sample tests
Which of the following is a direct (rather than indirect) measure of job applicants' capability to do the job?
outplacement centers
Which of the following provides employment counseling services for employees faced with downsizing?
can sue for defamation
"References Etc" will pose as a prospective employer, call a prior employer on an employee's behalf, and find out what the former employer is saying. If the prior employer provides unsubstantiated negative information, then the job applicant ____.
job specification
Zachary Schneider saw a sign in the window of an Amy's Ice Creams franchise operation. The sign said the company was looking for new employees. When he went in to ask for a job application, he was given a paper bag and told to do "something creative with it." The test was to see whether the job applicant was suited to carrying out the chain's mission: "To make people's day." This type of pre-employment assessment is not unusual. Gourmet grocery chain Central Market uses a four-page application form which includes essay questions such as "Tell us about your favorite food experience." If it seems an applicant is a good match for the company, he or she is asked to make a statement about himself or herself using items found in the grocery store and to participate with other applicants in a roundtable discussion.

Refer to Trends in Hiring Practices. The need for creative skills in order to work at Amy's would be listed as a ____ that the company's HR department would have developed for franchisees.
biodata
A perennial problem of teacher education programs is to screen the highest quality candidates from those who should not work in schools. One suggested method is to ask applicants a series of questions about their experiences with siblings, how they treat stress, their attitude toward procrastination, and ways they like to have fun. This method, which can use over 100 questions, gathers ____.
Job specifications, job analyses, and job descriptions
____ help companies meet the legal requirement that their human resource decisions be job-related
Validation refers to the process of determining how well a selection test or procedure predicts future job performance
Which of the following statements about job validation tests is true
Human resource management
____ is the process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people for the company
validated
A study in the construction industry found that when equipment is stolen from building sites, workers are the culprits 82 percent of the time. If background checks reduced employee thievery over a period of time and throughout the industry, then this selection process would be ____.
all of these
Which of the following types of information would typically be collected as part of a job analysis?
bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs
The fact that a 98-pound job candidate is not hired as a dock worker to move 60-pound boxes of produce is legal as a result of ____.
false
Cognitive ability tests are also called aptitude tests.
background check
Estimates of from 2 percent to 20 percent of a taxicab company's driver workforce could result as new federal regulations requiring that all drivers be fingerprinted and the drivers checked to see if they have a criminal record. This new ____ will cause a worsening problem for the already over-extended employer
specific ability test
Aptitude tests are also called ____.
true
Job analyses, job descriptions, and job specifications help companies meet the legal requirement that their human resource decisions be job-related.
external recruiting
Refer to Domino's. Robert Chabot relies heavily on employee referrals to first identify good job applicants. In other words, Chabot uses ____.
true
Background checks can be used to verify the truthfulness and accuracy of information that applicants provide about themselves.
false
The hostile work environment form of sexual harassment occurs when employment outcomes such as hiring, promotion, or simply keeping one's job depend on whether an individual submits to being sexually harassed
conduct a job analysis
Before beginning to recruit, organizations must ____.
selection
____ is the process of gathering information about job applicants to decide who should be offered a job
Before firing employees, managers should give them a chance to improve
To minimize the problems inherent in firing employees, managers should do which of the following?
wrongful discharge
Sharron Grant-Burton was a marketing director for Covenant Care, owner of skilled-nursing and assisted-living facilities. During a discussion of the fairness of the company's bonus structure with other marketing directors, Grant-Burton said she did not receive a bonus because her executive director "did not believe in them." Several days later, Grant-Burton was fired and told she had been terminated for a number of unspecified reasons, including her comments about bonuses. This is an example of a ____.
career paths
Which of the following is an internal recruiting method?
The Internet allows companies to quickly reach large numbers of people
Which of the following statements about Internet recruiting is true?
a hostile work environment
Former female employees of a national real estate brokerage firm claimed that they were subjected to lewd remarks, unwanted groping, and sexual propositions by male co-workers. According to their attorney, "The firm created a frat-house culture and then failed to do anything about it." Their suit claims the women were victims of ____.
are accurately described by none of these
Older workers ____.
true
Surface-level diversity refers to differences such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, and physical disabilities that are observable, typically unchangeable, and easy to measure
Hispanic- Americans
The fastest-growing population group in the United States is ____.
organizational plurality
The term ____ refers to a work environment where (1) each member is empowered to contribute in a way that maximizes the benefits to the organization, customers, and themselves; and (2) the individuality of each member is respected by not segmenting or polarizing people on the basis of their membership in a particular group
true
Diversity helps companies save money by reducing turnover, decreasing absenteeism, and avoiding expensive lawsuits.
glass ceiling
When AT&T hired a female as its president, it was evidence that AT&T does not have a(n) ____ to prevent women from rising to leadership positions
diversity audit
A(n) ____ is a formal assessment that measures employee and management attitudes, investigates the extent to which people are advantaged or disadvantaged with respect to hiring and promotions, and reviews companies' diversity-related policies and procedures.
Diversity
____ helps companies grow by improving the quality of problem solving and improving marketplace understanding.
surface-level diversity
When Suzanne Pogell wanted to learn to sail, she could find no one to teach her because men were the ones who sailed, and women were their crew. After mastering sailing, Suzanne started an all-woman sailing school called Womanship as a sole proprietorship. The male sailors who would not teach her were exhibiting ____.
openness to experience
An family restaurant based in the English speaking providence of Ontario, was planning on opening a catering business in the French-speaking areas of Canada, This restaurant would need employees with which of the following dimensions of personality?
assistive technology
The world's biggest manufacturer of locks is part of a national program in which employers are encouraging workers to continue working as long as they are physically able. To help its aging workers, the lock maker has provided them with magnifying lenses that give them the vision acuity they need to work on the small parts within a lock. These lenses are an example of ____.
learning and effectiveness
Bentley College launched a comprehensive diversity initiative that includes frequent diversity retreats for faculty, staff, and student leaders; innovative recruitment efforts; employee benefits for domestic partners; and extensive support services focused on race, gender, and disability. Bentley uses the ____ paradigm for managing diversity
sex discrimination
When Suzanne Pogell wanted to learn to sail, she could find no one to teach her because men were the ones who sailed, and women were their crew. After mastering sailing, Suzanne started an all-woman sailing school called Womanship as a sole proprietorship. By creating her own business, Suzanne overcame problems associated with ____ while creating a different version of the same problem.
the access and legitimacy paradigm
Which of the following paradigms for managing diversity is similar to the business growth advantage of diversity?
turnover costs
According to the text, ____ typically amount to more than 90 percent of employees' salaries
the learning and effectiveness paradigm
Which of the following paradigms for managing diversity not only takes into account surface-level diversity but also focuses on integrating deep-level diversity differences such as personality, attitudes, beliefs, and values into the actual work of the organization?
False
The Big Five dimensions of personality are autonomy, Machiavellianism, empathy, locus of control, and affectivity.
c. Accommodations for disabilities needn't be expensive
Which of the following statements about disabilities is true?
emotional stability
Which of the following is one of the Big Five personality dimensions?
make a commitment to reasonable workplace accommodations
To make sure that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else, organizations can ____.
social integration
____ is the degree to which group members are psychologically attracted to working with each other to accomplish a common objective.
improving marketplace understanding
Diversity helps companies grow by ____.
survey employees about their perceptions and satisfaction
To make sure that people of all racial and ethnic backgrounds have the same opportunities, companies should ____.
do all of these
To make sure that people with disabilities have the same opportunities as everyone else, organizations can ____.
true
The fastest-growing racial group in the United States is Hispanics.
false
Affirmative action actually makes good business sense in terms of cost savings, the ability to attract and retain talent, and business growth.
create a diversity program
What action can a medium-sized manufacturing company take if it wants to create a positive work environment; where every employee does his or her best work and individual differences are respected and not just ignored?
is done voluntarily
Unilever has operations in 150 countries. Recently, Unilever took 100 of these top managers on a jungle retreat to Costa Rica. To the dismay of Unilever's chair, there were no women in the group. Upon investigation, he learned that only one woman had even been invited. As the retreat progressed, its participants commented on the richness of diversity in nature and how everything needs diversity to grow. These comments caused Unilever's chair to establish an executive committee to examine practical ways to overcome barriers to women's promotion. They decided to avoid setting numerical targets because they encourage positive discrimination and instead examined recruitment and promotion practices.

Refer to Unilever. This is an example of a diversity program because it ____.
turnover costs
According to the text, ____ typically amount to more than 90 percent of employees' salaries.
ensure that younger and older workers interact with each other
To help companies reduce age discrimination, their managers can ____.
surface-level diversity
When Suzanne Pogell wanted to learn to sail, she could find no one to teach her because men were the ones who sailed, and women were their crew. After mastering sailing, Suzanne started an all-woman sailing school called Womanship as a sole proprietorship. The male sailors who would not teach her were exhibiting ____.
the access and legitimace paradigm
Which of the following paradigms for managing diversity is similar to the business growth advantage of diversity?
the degree to which someone is organized, hardworking, responsible, and achievement-oriented
Conscientiousness is ____.
the access and legitimacy paradigm
According to a recent census, over 40 percent of the Australian population was born overseas or had one parent born overseas. The abilities of these immigrants add value to the Australian workplace. The Australian government would have employers welcome these migrants and their children into their organizations as valued workers. Which paradigm for managing diversity does the Australian government most likely support?
true
The glass ceiling is the so-called invisible barrier that prevents women and minorities from advancing to the top jobs in organizations.
true
Reasonable accommodations for disabled worked include assistive technology.
false
The learning and effectiveness paradigm for managing diversity focuses on the acceptance and celebration of differences; so that the diversity within the company matches the diversity found among primary stakeholders such as customers, suppliers, and local communities.
false
The Big Five dimension of conscientiousness is the degree to which someone is cooperative, polite, flexible, forgiving, good-natured, tolerant, and trusting.
false
Diversity exists in organizations when there is a variety of demographic, cultural, and personal differences among the customers who do business with them.
multiplicative
According to some industrial psychologists, job performance is a(n) ____ function of motivation, ability, and situational constraints.
consistently, contingently, and quickly
For punishment to work (i.e., to weaken the frequency of undesirable behaviors without creating a backlash), the punishment must be strong enough to stop the undesired behavior and must be administered ____.
false
Expectancy theory describes one's motivation as a primarily unconscious process.
false
The basic components of equity theory are outcomes, instrumentality, and valence.
false
Goal specificity is the extent to which a goal is hard or challenging to accomplish.
intrinsic rewards
____ are the rewards associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.
high valence
According to a survey done on teaching evaluations, engineering students consider the improvement of teaching to be the most important outcome of the evaluation process. For engineering students who believe their efforts will lead to better teaching, the motivation to fill out a teaching evaluation would have a ____.
false
Distributive justice refers to the perceived fairness of the process used to make reward allocation decisions.
goal commitment
Goal acceptance is most similar to the idea of ____.
punishment
The city of Cairo has the world's greatest collection of Islamic buildings and statues. It would seem an ideal location for Muslim tourists, but unfortunately preservation activities have been inadequate and often more destructive than constructive. Imagine the Egyptian government is instituting a marketing campaign to motivate tourists to spend their vacation dollars in Cairo. Imagine tourists visiting Cairo and being motivated never to visit there again due to the fact that every old building they saw seemed more likely to cave in than the last one they had seen. In terms of motivational theory, ____ would have occurred.
false
According to the equity theory, objective reality rather than employee perceptions that determines employee motivation.
distributive justice
____ is the perceived degree to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed or allocated.
instrumentality
According to a survey done on teaching evaluations, engineering students consider the improvement of teaching to be the most important outcome of the evaluation process. In terms of the expectancy theory, the likelihood that students feel their inputs on the evaluations will lead directly to improved instruction is called ____.
satisfy employees' lower-order needs before attempting to satisfy higher-order needs
What practical steps can a manager take to motivate employees to increase their effort?
referents
In equity theory, ____ are others with whom people compare themselves to determine if they have been treated fairly
negative reinforcement
Which of the following is also called avoidance learning?
positive reinforcement
Users of credit and debit cards that earn the owners money or rewards towards future purchases, is an example of _______.
make sure workers truly accept organizational goals
Managers who use goal-setting theory to motivate employees should ____.
true
An intrinsic reward is a reward associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.
safety
Marketers often appeal to consumers' needs as defined by Maslow's hierarchy. A lock manufacturer, shows how much protection its locks provide and a cleaning company developed several types of wipes to eliminate concerns about infectious germs. Both marketers are appealing to which need as defined by Maslow?
underreward
Currently the U.S. Olympic Committee (USOC) pays Olympic athletes $25,000 for each gold medal, $15,000 for a silver medal, and $10,000 for a bronze medal. The USOC pays disabled athletes only 10 percent of what the Olympic athletes are paid. Paralympic athletes are angry at being treated unfairly. What kind of inequity are the Paralympic athletes experiencing?
variable interval
In a(n) ____ reinforcement schedule, consequences follow a behavior after different times, some shorter and some longer, that vary around a specified average time.
false
According to the equity theory, objective reality rather than employee perceptions that determines employee motivation
achievement
The owner of a small local chain of retail stores that target affluent women and carry eclectic lines of wrapping paper, stationery, invitations, and gifts has expressed a strong need to expand nationwide. According to McClelland's Learned Needs Theory, the owner has a need for ____.
satisfy employees' lower-order needs before attempting to satisfy higher-order needs
What practical steps can a manager take to motivate employees to increase their effort?
do all of these
For the goal-setting theory to work, goals must ____.
goals can energize behavior
Which of the following statements about goal-setting theory is true
true
Motivation is the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal
reinforcement contingencies and schedules of reinforcement
The two parts of reinforcement are ____.
false
According to some industrial psychologists, Performance = Motivation ´ Ability
schedule of reinforcement
A(n) ____ is the set of rules regarding reinforcement contingencies such as which behaviors will be reinforced, which consequences will follow those behaviors, and the schedule by which those consequences will be delivered.
higher-order and lower-order needs
On the basis of research evidence, the two basic needs categories are ____.
continuous
In a(n) ____ reinforcement schedule, a consequence follows every instance of a behavior
goal
France has 14 million smokers. More importantly, smokers in France are closely associated with the French culture. So when the French government waged a war against smoking, it set as its ____ to reduce smoking by 30 percent by the end of the decade.
punishment
Excessive speed is a major cause of road crashes in Australia. The Australian government is thinking of using cameras to catch speeders. According to reinforcement theory, Australian officials are using ____ to control speeding
satisfaction
According to the motivational model presented in the text, perceived inequity directly affects ____.
safety
Marketers often appeal to consumers' needs as defined by Maslow's hierarchy. A lock manufacturer, shows how much protection its locks provide and a cleaning company developed several types of wipes to eliminate concerns about infectious germs. Both marketers are appealing to which need as defined by Maslow
increasing outcomes
For workers who feel underpaid, creating a union at their place of employment to attain higher wages can be a mechanism for restoring equity by ____.
equity theory
Although both Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments and the advent of professional women's sporting significant discrepancies still exist between men's and women's sports. For example, women receive less media coverage, promotion, and institutional support. According to ____, the motivation for women athletes to perform at the top of their ability is less than that for men.
make sure workers truly accept organizational goals
Managers who use goal-setting theory to motivate employees should ____.
true
As a leader behavior, initiating structure is the degree to which a leader structures the roles of followers by setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks
consideration
Hot Topic is a fast-growing clothing chain targeted to the alternative teen demographic. Hot Topic's CEO Betsy McLaughlin relies on her employees to locate new trends. McLaughlin almost daily consults with her employees for suggestions on what the stores should carry. She relies on their input before making inventory decisions and treats her employees as equals. McLaughlin is demonstrating ____.
unethical charismatic leader
People with Machiavellian personalities believe that virtually any type of behavior is acceptable if it helps satisfy needs or accomplish goals. Add that skill to someone with the ability to create strong bonds with followers and you have described a leader who is a(n) ____.
transformational
UPS was founded UPS in 1907 as a message delivery business. The development of the telephone would have put an end to the business if UPS's founder had not been a ____ type of leader. One who was able to get his employees to accomplish more than they had thought possible and re-invent the company as a company that delivered goods for retailers
true
While transformational leaders use visionary and inspirational appeals to influence followers, transactional leadership is based on an exchange process.
true
Leadership is the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals
create a positive image of the future
The author of The Science of Good and Evil describes his meeting with the founders of Google in the book. He described them as visionary leaders, which means their primary goal for being in business is to ____.
charismatic leadership
____ refers to the behavioral tendencies and personal characteristics of leaders that create an exceptionally strong relationship between them and their followers
directive
Under the leadership of Michael Eisner, The Walt Disney Company developed an "executive-centric, Eisner-centric culture"—whatever Eisner wanted to happen, he made happen. In terms of the path-goal theory, Eisner used a(n) ____ leadership style to improve Disney's profitability
transactional leadership
Which leadership style would be most likely to rely on positive and negative reinforcement?
directive leadership
According to the path-goal theory of leadership, what type of leadership is being practiced that involves letting employees know precisely what is expected of them, giving them specific guidelines for performing tasks, scheduling work, setting standards of performance, and making sure that people follow standard rules and regulations
job performance; job satisfaction
Research shows that while initiating structure impacts primarily on ____, consideration impacts primarily on ____.
trait
The "great person" theory is another name for the ____ theory of leadership.
true
According to the normative decision theory, using the right degree of employee participation improves the quality of decisions and the extent to which employees accept and are committed to decisions
true
As described in the path-goal theory, directive leadership is similar to the key leadership behavior of initiating structure
initiating structure; considerations
Research at three universities has confirmed that two basic leader behaviors, ____ and ____, are central to successful leadership
strong position power
Some employees called former General Electric, CEO Jack Welch, "Bloody Jack" because his restructuring efforts eliminated numerous jobs and product lines without thought about how individual employees were impacted. Mr. Welch was viewed as "the hatchet man," and the source of the firings. Under Fiedler's contingency theory, someone acting like Mr. Welch would be viewed as having ____.
true
There is no such thing as a "best" leadership style for all situations and employees.
These behaviors are independent, meaning that leaders can do both at the same time.
Which of the following statements about the two basic leader behaviors that are central to successful leadership is true?
concern for production
Which of the following is another term for initiating structure leadership behavior?
false
Benchmarking is the process of setting corporate norms
forces managers at each level of the company to set specific goals and measure performance in each of four areas
The Balanced Scorecard approach to control ____.
bureaucratic
____ controls should be used when it is necessary to standardize operating procedures and establish limits
true
Companies may determine standards by evaluating their capacity to enable goal achievement, by listening to customers, by observing competitors, or by benchmarking other companies
false
Concertive control produces less stress for workers than bureaucratic control.
suboptimization
____ occurs when performance improvement is attained in one part of an organization but only at the expense of decreased performance in another part
standards
A report calling for a company to set clear targets to improve fuel economy and to cut factory emissions would want the company to establish emission control ____.
be highly resistant to change
Companies that rely on bureaucratic control tend to ____.
listening to customers
A chain of specialty fashion stores has interviewed a sample of its female customers and learned that a customer can be expected to visit the store looking for new merchandise on average every two weeks. The chain of stores was able to set this standard through ____.
benchmarking
When Marriott decided to improve the quality of service offered to customers, it asked special corporate guests to comment on the good and bad issues of their stay and also to tell what the competition is doing that is better than Marriott. The Marriott acted accordingly. In other words, it used ____.
makes managers at all levels pay much closer attention to how they run their segment of the business
Economic value added (EVA) is so important because it ____.
false
Implementing controls is always worthwhile
policies and procedures prespective
Which of the following is NOT one of the four perspectives measured in the Balanced Scorecard approach to control?
standards
In October 2005, Cadbury Schweppes losses caused it to scale back its financial projections for the remainder of the year. These financial projections were ____ for the beverage company
standards
____ are a basis of comparison for measuring the extent to which organizational performance is satisfactory or unsatisfactory.
cybernetick feasibility
____ is the extent to which it is possible to implement each step in the control process
concurrent control, feedback control, and feedforward control
The three basic control methods are ____.
self-control
A manager has instructed Ralph and his fellow workers to develop a daily theme such as patience, empathy, and kindness. Each day, the workers are to try to emphasize the theme as they work with customers, suppliers, and each other. What kind of a control system is Ralph's manager using?
false
The term excessive value appropriated (EVA) refers to the amount by which profits (after expenses) exceed the cost of capital in a given year
excellence, value, and conformance to expectations
Quality is typically defined and measured in three ways. They are ____.
task structure
Which of the following is an example of an environmental contingency in path-goal theory?
leadership
____is the process of influencing others to achieve group or organizational goals.
true
The normative decision theory helps leaders decide how much employee participation should be used when making decisions.
true
While transformational leaders use visionary and inspirational appeals to influence followers, transactional leadership is based on an exchange process.
self-confidence
Leaders who possess the trait of ____ are more decisive and assertive and more likely to gain others' confidence.
trait
The "great person" theory is another name for the ____ theory of leadership.
would be characterized as a leader
When Jack Welch, former Chairman of General Electric, a Fortune 5 company, assumed the role of CEO, he immediately began to make drastic changes in the company's structure and product lines. He envisioned a bloated, inefficient General Electric becoming an efficient, profitable organization over time. He inspired and motivated his employees to change. Jack Welch ____.
participative
Hot Topic is a fast-growing clothing chain targeted to the alternative teen demographic. Hot Topic's CEO Betsy McLaughlin relies on her employees to locate new trends. McLaughlin almost daily consults with her employees for suggestions on what the stores should carry. She relies on their input before making inventory decisions. McLaughlin uses the ____ style of management.
consideration
A CEO who tours company plants to meet and talk to employees at all levels in order to better understand their concerns and feelings is demonstrating which type of leader behavior?
consideration
In terms of leadership behavior, the term ____ refers to the extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable, supportive, and shows concern for employees.
All of these are recommended steps to take to reduce the risks associated with unethical charismatics
Which of the following is one of the steps recommended for companies to take to reduce the risks associated with unethical charismatic leaders?
unethical charismatic leader
People with Machiavellian personalities believe that virtually any type of behavior is acceptable if it helps satisfy needs or accomplish goals. Add that skill to someone with the ability to create strong bonds with followers and you have described a leader who is a(n) ____.
contingency
W. L. Gore is the company that created Gore-Tex among many other innovative products. W.L.Gore employees (known as associates) don't have titles or bosses in the traditional sense. Instead, associates make commitments to work on projects that they believe are most worthy of their time. At W.L. Gore, few leaders are appointed; leaders simply emerge as needed by the other employees or the project itself. The Gore company more than likely adheres to the ____ theory of leadership.
trait theory
Relatively stable characteristics such as abilities, psychological motives, or consistent patterns of behavior, form the basis for the ____ of leadership.
initiating structure; consideration
Research at three universities has confirmed that two basic leader behaviors, ____ and ____, are central to successful leadership.
charismatic leadership and transformational leadership
The two types of visionary leadership are ____.
Successful leaders are confident about their ability to make long-term strategic decisions even if the decisions seem risky to others.
Which of the following statements about what makes a successful leader is true?
do all of these things
Ford Motor Company has always attracted and nurtured capable managers, but it has failed to do the same for leaders. Ford is embarking on a sweeping attempt to mass-manufacture leaders. It wants to build an army of "warrior-entrepreneurs." Ford's "warrior-entrepreneurs" will be expected to ____.
These behaviors are referred to as initiating structure and consideration
Which of the following statements about the two basic leader behaviors that are central to successful leadership is true
reward followers for good behavior and punish followers for poor behavior
Transactional leaders ____.
normative
Marriott's top management decided that there was need for a serious effort to "put democracy back in the company" and make employees feel "involved in the success of the company." Employees asked special corporate guests to comment on the good and bad issues of their stay and also to tell what the competition is doing that is better than Marriott. Then the employees acted accordingly. Marriott adopted ____ control.
balanced scorecard
____ is a control method that encourages managers to look beyond traditional measures to evaluate four different perspectives on company performance.
standards
A report calling for a company to set clear targets to improve fuel economy and to cut factory emissions would want the company to establish emission control ____.
concurrent
____ control is a method of gathering information about performance deficiencies as they occur.
forces managers at each level of the company to set specific goals and measure performance in each of four areas
The Balanced Scorecard approach to control ____.
true
The objective control approach to managerial control manifests itself as either behavior control or output control.
true
Sometimes the costs of control exceed its benefits.
suboptimization
A large university library has decided to make it nearly impossible for all but the most renowned Civil War experts to access their Civil War collection. The librarian in charge of this collection feels that this new policy will adversely influence the use of the collection in research on the experiences of everyday people during the war. This is an example of the use of control creating ____.
value
When a company emphasizes ____ as its quality goal, managers must simultaneously control excellence, price, durability, or other features of a product or service that customers strongly associate with it.
control
____ is the regulatory process of establishing standards that will achieve organizational goals, comparing actual performance to those standards, and then, if necessary, taking corrective action to restore performance to those standards.
false
The European Union is moving toward a requirement that consumers rather than businesses be held responsible for recycling the products that companies manufacture.
feedforward
A car manufacturer ordered 20,000 window assemblies from a supplier. To make sure the assemblies were made to specifications, the supplier of the window assemblies shipped a sample to the car manufacturer for testing. This is an example of ____ control.
controlling
C&K Brewing Company is a microbrewery in western Canada. It produces Maiden's Honor brand ale, a dark beer called Warrior's Cry, and several seasonal beers under the brand name Hearthfire. Its owners George Claiborne and Pete Kunard both believe the brewery's competitive advantage comes from the duo having hired an experienced German brewmaster to oversee the production of its beers. The brewmaster checks all of the ingredients before they are mixed together to make sure that each component is of the highest possible quality and rejects those that are not. After the beer has brewed, the brewmaster runs several tests on the beer to check for taste and clarity and throws out barrels that are cloudy and/or bitter.

Refer to C&K Brewing. The brewmaster is in charge of which classical management function?
control
Interpublic, the world's third-biggest marketing services group, informed the SEC that it "had found accounting errors resulting from incompetence as well as falsified books and records, violations of the laws and company policies, and inappropriate customer charges" that required it to restate its earnings for every year in the decade. Interpublic is guilty of overstating both its expenses and its revenues in its earning reports. Interpublic blames its faulty revenue reporting on "inadequate procedures for review of customer contracts." This fraudulent activity will more than likely result in a default on the company's debt and the loss of its stock market listing.

Refer to Interpublic. Which traditional management function was Interpublic not using effectively prior to its discovery of fraudulent activities?
the establishment of clear standards of performance
The basic control process of business begins with ____.
suboptimization
____ occurs when performance improvement is attained in one part of an organization but only at the expense of decreased performance in another part.
benchmarking
When Marriott decided to improve the quality of service offered to customers, it asked special corporate guests to comment on the good and bad issues of their stay and also to tell what the competition is doing that is better than Marriott. The Marriott acted accordingly. In other words, it used ____.
cybernetic feasibility
According to the text, which of the following factors can help managers to determine whether more control is possible?
concertive; bureaucratic
Ironically, ____ control may lead to even more pressure for workers to conform to expectations than ____ control.
behavior and output
The two types of objective controls managers use are ____.