42 terms

Motivation and Emotion RM

Primary drives
hunger, thirst, need to sleep, drive to reproduce
secondary drives
desire to obtain learned reinforcers like money and social acceptance
Olds and Milner experiment
found instinct, arousal, and opponent process theories when they found rats would self-stimulate themselves with electric shocks
Instinct theory
learning of species-specific behavior motivates organisms to do what is necessary to unsure survival
Arousal theory
an optimum level of arousal, of alertness and activation, at which performance on a task is optimal
Yerkes-Dodson law
tasks of moderate difficulty elicit the highest level of performance
opponent process theory
All emotions are subject to a subsequent, opposite reaction. each time we experience fear in a given situation, the repetition of that emotion becomes gradually desensitized and we feel less fear.
Drive reduction theory
much of the motivation we experience is a result of our bodies trying to maintain homeostasis
traget body temperature
lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus
they send messages to brain to control body weight
an area controlling feeding
glucostatic hypothesis
brain tries to make sure there is enough glucose since it is the primary fuel for most organs
Lipostatic hypothesis
fat is measured and controlled substance in the baby that regulates hunger
Anorexia nervosa
individual being 15% below ideal body weight
Body dysmorphia
distorted body image
Bulimia nervosa
alternating periods of binging and purging
Lateral hypothalamus
responsible for drinking/thirst
primary sexual hormones in males
primary sexual hormones in females
Biological theory
Behavior is pre-programmed and biologically determined
Humanistic theory
Maslow's triangle:
Top: self-actualization
2nd tier: Esteem -> belongingness needs
1st tiers: safety -> physiological needs
Cognitive theories
motivations can be intrinsic (self) or extrinsic (outside)
need to feel competent and in control
belief that we can or cannot attain a particular goal
Henry Murray
individual difference and varying environments can cause motivations and need to be expressed in many different ways
need for affilation
high level of this need like to avoid conflicts, like to by members of groups, and dislike being evaluated
Kurt Lewin
classified 4 conflicts
Approach approach conflict
faced with two great options
Ex accepted by Harvard and Princeton
Avoidance avoidance conflict:
faced with two bad options
Ex. Taking out the trash or doing the laundry
Approach avoidance conflict
Ex. Dessert vs getting fat
Multiple approach and avoidance:
both options have good and bad sides
Ex. Costly new car, economical ugly car
James-Lange Theory
environmental stimuli causes physiological changes and responses
stimulus ->physiological response -> emotion
Cannon-Bard Theory
Body's reaction and emotion happen at the same time- one does not cause the other
Two factor-theory
Emotions result from a cognitive interpretation of a physiological response
causes person to feel challenged or endangered
events that cause stress
transient stressors
temporary challenges
chronic stressors
very serious, can cause negative impact on health
general adaption syndrome
alarm: arousal of sympathetic nervous system
resistance: parasympathetic rebound
exhaustion: body's resources are exhausted, tissue cannot be repaired
Richard Lazarus
cognitive theory: primary appraisal
primary: sees if event is stressful
secondary: assessing whether individual can handle the stress
Type A behavior
competitive, sense of time urgency, elevated feelings of hostility and anger towards stress
Type B behavior
low level competitiveness, generally easy-going attitude towards stress