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Primary drives

hunger, thirst, need to sleep, drive to reproduce

secondary drives

desire to obtain learned reinforcers like money and social acceptance

Olds and Milner experiment

found instinct, arousal, and opponent process theories when they found rats would self-stimulate themselves with electric shocks

Instinct theory

learning of species-specific behavior motivates organisms to do what is necessary to unsure survival

Arousal theory

an optimum level of arousal, of alertness and activation, at which performance on a task is optimal

Yerkes-Dodson law

tasks of moderate difficulty elicit the highest level of performance

opponent process theory

All emotions are subject to a subsequent, opposite reaction. each time we experience fear in a given situation, the repetition of that emotion becomes gradually desensitized and we feel less fear.

Drive reduction theory

much of the motivation we experience is a result of our bodies trying to maintain homeostasis


traget body temperature

lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus

they send messages to brain to control body weight


an area controlling feeding

glucostatic hypothesis

brain tries to make sure there is enough glucose since it is the primary fuel for most organs

Lipostatic hypothesis

fat is measured and controlled substance in the baby that regulates hunger

Anorexia nervosa

individual being 15% below ideal body weight

Body dysmorphia

distorted body image

Bulimia nervosa

alternating periods of binging and purging

Lateral hypothalamus

responsible for drinking/thirst


primary sexual hormones in males


primary sexual hormones in females

Biological theory

Behavior is pre-programmed and biologically determined

Humanistic theory

Maslow's triangle:
Top: self-actualization
2nd tier: Esteem -> belongingness needs
1st tiers: safety -> physiological needs

Cognitive theories

motivations can be intrinsic (self) or extrinsic (outside)


need to feel competent and in control


belief that we can or cannot attain a particular goal

Henry Murray

individual difference and varying environments can cause motivations and need to be expressed in many different ways

need for affilation

high level of this need like to avoid conflicts, like to by members of groups, and dislike being evaluated

Kurt Lewin

classified 4 conflicts

Approach approach conflict

faced with two great options
Ex accepted by Harvard and Princeton

Avoidance avoidance conflict:

faced with two bad options
Ex. Taking out the trash or doing the laundry

Approach avoidance conflict

Ex. Dessert vs getting fat

Multiple approach and avoidance:

both options have good and bad sides
Ex. Costly new car, economical ugly car

James-Lange Theory

environmental stimuli causes physiological changes and responses
stimulus ->physiological response -> emotion

Cannon-Bard Theory

Body's reaction and emotion happen at the same time- one does not cause the other

Two factor-theory

Emotions result from a cognitive interpretation of a physiological response


causes person to feel challenged or endangered


events that cause stress

transient stressors

temporary challenges

chronic stressors

very serious, can cause negative impact on health

general adaption syndrome

alarm: arousal of sympathetic nervous system
resistance: parasympathetic rebound
exhaustion: body's resources are exhausted, tissue cannot be repaired

Richard Lazarus

cognitive theory: primary appraisal
primary: sees if event is stressful
secondary: assessing whether individual can handle the stress

Type A behavior

competitive, sense of time urgency, elevated feelings of hostility and anger towards stress

Type B behavior

low level competitiveness, generally easy-going attitude towards stress

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