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The first successful settlement in the Virginia colony founded in May, 1607. Harsh conditions nearly destroyed the colony but in 1610 supplies arrived with a new wave of settlers. The settlement became part of the Virginia Company of London in 1620. The population remained low due to lack of supplies until agriculture was solidly established. Jamestown grew to be a prosperous shipping port when John Rolfe introduced tobacco as a major export and cash crop.

New England Colonies

Massachusets New Hampshire Connecticut and Rhode Island. They had a short growing season long and cold winters, rocky soil and Forests and economy was based on trading shipping and ship building

Carolina Colonies

Had a constitution called the Fundamental Constitution for Carolina made with the help of John Locke in 1669. The northern and southern parts developed differently. The north did not import many slaves and had no aristocracy. The south was more prosperous and had an aristocratic society.

John Smith

Helped found and govern Jamestown. His leadership and strict discipline helped the Virginia colony get through the difficult first winter


a Powhatan woman (the daughter of Powhatan) who befriended the English at Jamestown and is said to have saved Captain John Smith's life (1595-1617)

St. Augustine

First spanish settlement. Florida 1565

London Company

a joint-stock company chartered in 1606 and was responsible for founding the first permanent English settlement in America; Jamestown, Virginia in 1607

Sir Francis Drake

English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)

Sir Walter Raleigh

English courtier (a favorite of Elizabeth I) who tried to colonize Virginia

House of Burgesses

the first elected legislative assembly in the New World established in the Colony of Virginia in 1619, representative colony set up by England to make laws and levy taxes but England could veto its legistlative acts.


a town in Massachusetts founded by Pilgrims in 1620


Group of English Protestant dissenters who established Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts in 1620 to seek religious freedom after having lived briefly in the Netherlands.

Church of England

the national church of England (and all other churches in other countries that share its beliefs)

William Bradford

A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.


the ship in which the Pilgrim Fathers sailed from England to Massachusetts in 1620

Mayflower Compact

1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.

Massachusetts Bay Colony

1629 - King Charles gave the Puritans a right to settle and govern a colony in the Massachusetts Bay area. The colony established political freedom and a representative government


Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.

John Winthrop

As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, Winthrop (1588-1649) was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.

Great Migration

when more than 15,000 Puritans journeyed to Massachusetts to escape religious persecution and economic hard times

Congregational Church

A church grown out of the Puritan church, was established in all New England colonies but Rhode Island. It was based on the belief that individual churches should govern themselves

Harvard College

First college in New World. Established by Puritans to train ministers.

Massachusetts School of Law

First public education legislation in America. It declared that towns with 50 + families had to hire a schoolmaster and that towns with over 100 families has to found a grammar school.

Rhode Island

Roger Williams founded this colony when he was expelled from Massachusetts for religious disagreements. Supported the separation of church and state and paying the Indians for their land.

Roger Williams

He founded Rhode Island for separation of Church and State. He believed that the Puritans were too powerful and was ordered to leave the Massachusetts Bay Colony for his religious beliefs.

Anne Hutchinson

She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.


Founded by Thomas Hooker and his followers to escape religious persecution. The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut defined the powers of colonial government and allowed more men to vote than in Massachusetts.

Thomas Hooker

A Puritan minister who led about 100 settlers out of Massachusetts Bay to Connecticut because he believed that the governor and other officials had too much power. He wanted to set up a colony in Connecticut with strict limits on government.

Orders of Connecticut

First constitution in the new world

New Hampshire

one of the New England British colonies that formed the United States


the first colony established for Catholics

Lord Baltimore

1694- He was the founder of Maryland, a colony which offered religious freedom, and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.

Act of Religious Toleration

a 1649 Maryland law that provided religious freedom for all Christians

Middle Colonies

New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. had fertile soil moderate winters warm summers and a good growing season and economy was based on farming mining craft jobs cash crops grain manufacturing and trade

New York

colony the English peaceably took back from the Dutch, then given to James II, duke of York and Albany (not yet king), who held almost unlimited power of the colony. Religious tolerance and property protection were promised to the people of New York

New Jersey

formed when James II gave part of his land in New York to his friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord John Berkeley. The people of New Jersey were granted the right to elect an assembly

Henry Hudson

Discovered what today is known as the Hudson River. Sailed for the Dutch even though he was originally from England. He was looking for a northwest passage through North America.

New Netherlands

early dutch colony that became New York in 1664

New Amsterdam

Dutch colony, present day New York City


in 1681, Charles II awarded the land of PA to William Penn, in order to pay off a debt to his father. He established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers

William Penn

A Quaker that founded Pennsylvania to establish a place where his people and others could live in peace and be free from persecution.


English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preach a doctrine of pacifism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania

Holy Experiment

William Penn's term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.


originally Swedish/Dutch settlement, given to William Penn in 1682; at first perceived as merely an appendage to Pennsylvania, but later its value was realized because of its shore line and river leading from the coast to Philadelphia. 1701, Delaware was granted its own representative assembly, although they continued to share Pennsylvania's governor. 1704 saw the creation of an entirely separate government for Delaware


the buffer colony, the charity colony, founded by James Orglethorpe

James Oglethorp

A wealthy member of Parliament who founded Georgia in 1733 as a refuge for imprisoned debtors.

Southern Colonies

Virginia Maryland North and South Carolina and Georgia. Fertile Soilwarm summers tide water region had land along the coast of riversand fertile soil. Back country had inland; hilly and forests. Economy was based on tobacco in the Tide Water region were rich and hunting trapping substinence farming cattle and pigs and they were poor

headright system

Headrights were parcels of land consisting of about 50 acres which were given to colonists who brought indentured servants into America. They were used by the Virginia Company to attract more colonists.

indentured Servants

colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years

Martin Luther

a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.

John Calvin

religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society


Puritans that wanted to separate from church of england aka Pilgrims

Miles Standish

English colonist in America, English army captain at Plymouth who helped defend the Pilgrim colony.

Half-Way Covenant

The Half-way Covenant applied to those members of the Puritan colonies who were the children of church members, but who hadn't achieved grace themselves. The covenant allowed them to participate in some church affairs.

Salem Witch Trials

1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations in a puritan village marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress

Pequot War

The Bay colonists wanted to claim Connecticut for themselves but it belonged to the Pequot. The colonists burned down their village and 400 were killed.

Bacon's Rebellion

an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. It was the first rebellion in the American colonies in which discontented frontiersmen took part; a similar uprising in Maryland occurred later that year. The uprising was a protest against the governor of Virginia, William Berkeley.


an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

Middle Passage

the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade

Triangular Trade

A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa

Stono rebellion

The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina. 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida. The uprising was crushed and the participants executed. The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to go.


movement during the 1700's that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society

John Locke

English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.

Wealth of Nations

This is the 18th century book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith in which he spells out the first modern account of free market economies.


The religion of the Enlightenment (1700s). Followers believed that God existed and had created the world, but that afterwards He left it to run by its own natural laws. Denied that God communicated to man or in any way influenced his life.

Great Awakening

Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.

George Whitefield

One of the preachers of the great awakening (key figure of "New Light"); known for his talented voice inflection and ability to bring many a person to their knees.

Jonathan Edwards

The most outstanding preacher of the Great Awakening. He was a New England Congregationalist and preached in Northampton, MA, he attacked the new doctrines of easy salvation for all. He preached anew the traditional ideas of Puritanism related to sovereignty of God, predestination, and salvation by God's grace alone. He had vivid descriptions of Hell that terrified listeners.

Phillis Wheatley

American poet (born in Africa) who was the first recognized Black writer in America (1753-1784)

Benjamin Franklin

Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.

Peter Zenger Case

John Peter Zenger, a newspaper printer, protested the royal governor in 1734-35. He was put on trial for this "act of treason." The jury went against the royal governor and ruled Zenger innocent. This set the standards for democracy and, most importantly, for the freedom of the press.

French and Indian War

Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.

Albany Congress

Established in 1754 and was led by Ben Franklin and was also created by British government for greater unity within the colonies so that they could help to defeat French. Bribed Indian chiefs for loyalty. Delegates accepted an unity plan,but colonies and Britain both declined

Treaty of Paris 1763

Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain

Pontiac's Rebellion

1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.

Proclamation Line 1763

prohibited colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains, colonists weren't allowed to settle of buy land there, this led to outrage in the 13 colonies

Salutary Neglect

British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureaucrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government

Paxton Boys

They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.

Regulator Movement

movement in North Carolina that was an insurrection against eastern domination of colony's affairs; spearheaded by Scots-Irish; many who participated in this later joined American revolutionaries (including presidents, ex. Andrew Jackson)

Navigation Laws

In the 1660's England restricted the colonies; They couldn't trade with other countries. The colonies were only allowed to trade with England.

Writs of Assistance

It was part of the Townshend Acts. It said that the customs officers could inspect a ship's cargo without giving a reason. Colonists protested that the Writs violated their rights as British citizens.

James Otis

a young lawyer in Boston, argued that colonists should not be taxed by Parliament because they could not vote for members of Parliament. "no taxation without colonist representation"

Grenville policies

Ends salutary neglect. A.E.O.M.S., vice-admiralty court in Halifax, Nova Scotia (no trial by jury). Revenue Act (Sugar Act. Sole purpose to raise money). Currency Act (paper tender illegal),Stamp Act (stamp on all legal/print docs).

Sons of Liberty

A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used poth peaceful and violent means of protest

Patrick Henry

Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with "Give me liberty or give me death" speech

Declaratory Act

Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.

Townshend Acts

laws passed in 1767 that taxed goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea

Boston Massacre

The first bloodshed of the American Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five americans

Crispus Attucks

Killed in Boston Massacre, black laborer, only African-American person killed in Boston Massacre

Gaspee Incident

In June, 1772, the British customs ship Gaspée ran around off the colonial coast. When the British went ashore for help, colonials boarded the ship and burned it. They were sent to Britain for trial. Colonial outrage led to the widespread formation of Committees of Correspondence.

Committees of Correspondence

Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies

Tea Act

Law passed by parliament allowing the British East India Company to sell its low-cost tea directly to the colonies - undermining colonial tea merchants; led to the Boston Tea Party

Intolerable Acts

in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses

Quebec Act

Extended boundaries of Quebec and granted equal rights to Catholics and recognized legality Catholic Church in the territory; colonists feared this meant that a pope would soon oversee the colonies.

First Continental Congress

September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts

Lexington and Concord

the first battle of the American Revolution (April 19, 1775)

Second Continental Congress

They organized the continental Army, called on the colonies to send troops, selected George Washington to lead the army, and appointed the comittee to draft the Declaration of Independence

Bunker Hill

a battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.

Common Sense

a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation

Declaration of Independence

The document approved by representatives of the American colonies in 1776 that stated their grievances against the British monarch and declared their independence.


A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.

George Rogers Clark

Leader of a small Patriot force that captured British-controlled Fort Vincennes in the Ohio Valley in 1779., secured the Northwest Territory for America


The last major battle of the war in which Charles Cornwallis surrendered to George Washington. The French helped us. The was over, and colonists had won!

Treaty of Paris 1783

This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River

Hessian Mercenaries

England hired many of these to fight the colonist. Soldiers for hire.

Baron von Steuben

volunteer, general in Prussia,offered help to Patriots after Washington won the battles at Trenton & Princeton, arrived at Valley Forge in the spring of 1778

Articles of Confederation

this document, the nations first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage

Newburgh Conspiracy

The officers of the Continental Army had long gone without pay, and they met in New York to address Congress about their pay, they also considered staging a coup and seizing control of the new government, but the plotting ceased when George Washington refused to support the plan.

Northwest Ordinance

Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states

Shays' Rebellion

Rebellion led by Daniel Shays of farmers in western Massachusetts in 1786-1787, protesting mortgage foreclosures. It highlighted the need for a strong national government just as the call for the Constitutional Convention went out.

Republican Motherhood

it elevated women as keepers of the national conscience because they were entrusted with the moral education of the young

Feme Covert

"covered woman," doctrine saying that a wife's civic life was completely subsumed by her husband's

Constitutional Convention

The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.

Virginia Plan

Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population

New Jersey Plan

New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress

Great Compromise

Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house

Three fifth Compromise

Settled the question of how slave populations would be represented in Congress. Said that each slave would be counted as 3/5 of a person. All fugitive slaves must be returned to their owners.

Elastic Clause

the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers

Checks and Balance

system in which the powers of government are balanced among different branches so that each branch can check, or limit, the power of the other branch

Separation of Powers

the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government

Supremacy Clause

Article VI of the Constitution, which makes the Constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws when the national government is acting within its constitutional limits.

Federalist Papers

a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay (using the name "publius") published in NY newspapers and used to convince readers to adopt the new constitution

Anti Federalist Papers

a collection of articles, written in opposition to the ratification of the 1787 United States Constitution.

Bill of Rights

Although the Anti-Federalists failed to block the ratification of the Constitution, they did ensure that the Bill of Rights would be created to protect individuals from government interference and possible tyranny. The Bill of Rights, drafted by a group led by James Madison, consisted of the first ten amendments to the Constitution, which guaranteed the civil rights of American citizens.

Commerce Compromise

Resolved differences between northern and southern states; Congress could not tax exports nor ban the slave trade for 20 yrs.

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