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56 terms

Criminology

Terms
STUDY
PLAY
Criminology
explains the origin, extent, and natures of crime in society
Criminal Justice
refers to the agencies of social control that handle criminal offenders
Biological Theory
belief that both heredity and / or chemicals of the body influence criminal behavior
Psychological Theory
belief that focuses on the psychological aspects of crime, including the associations among intelligence, personality, learning, and criminal behavior
Social Causes of Crime
the belief that influences from social groups/ peers influence criminal behavior
Economic Causes of Crime
the belief that financial successes/failures plays a part in influencing criminal behavior
Murder
unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought and with premeditation and deliberation
Manslaughter
intentional killing committed under extenuating circumstances that mitigate the killing, such as killing in the heat of passion after being provoked
Battery
unlawful touching of another with intent to cause injury
Assault
intentional placing of another in fear of receiving an immediate battery
Rape
unlawful sexual intercourse with a female without her consent
Robbery
wrongful taking and carrying away of personal property from a person by violence or intimidation
First Degree Murder
occurs when a person kills another after premeditation and deliberation
Second Degree Murder
requires the person to have malice aforethought but not premeditation or deliberation
Voluntary or Non-Negligent Manslaughter
killing committed in the heat of passion or during a sudden quarrel that provokes violence
Involuntary or Negligent Manslaughter
killing that occurs when a person's acts are negligent and without regard for the harm they may cause others (like motor vehicle deaths)
Single/Double/Triple Murder
One, 2, or 3 victims, one event, one location
Serial Murder
Serial murder occurs when one or more individuals commits a second murder and/or subsequent murder; it lacks a relationship (victim and attackers are strangers); occurs at a different time and has no connection to the initial (and subsequent) murder; and is frequently committed in a different geographic location.
Mass Murder
the act of killing three or more victims as part of a single ongoing killing event
Spree Murder
a single event with 2 or more locations and no emotional cooling-off period between murders
Statutory Rape
sexual relations between an under aged minor and an adult
Revolutionary Terrorism
uses violence to frighten those in power with the ultimate goal to replace the existing government (PLO)
Political Terrorism
directed at people or groups who oppose this terrorists' political ideology (white supremacy, Waco)
Nationalist Terrorism
promotes interests of a minority ethnic or religious group that has been persecuted under majority rule
Cause-Based Terrorism
use of violence to address a grievance (abortion)
Environmental Terrorism
fight for environmental causes
State-Sponsored Terrorism
government may actually cause this type against their own people to control them (genocide)
Actus Reus
evidence that the accused engaged in the act
Mens Rea
the mental state required to have intended to commit the act or foreseen its consequences
Profiling Input
Comprehensive case material, victimology, forensic information, preliminary police report, photographs
Decision Process
homicide type and style, primary intent, victim risk, escalation, time factors, location factors
Crime Assessment
reconstruction, crime classification, organized vs disorganized, victim selection, sequence of crime, staging, motivation, crime scene dynamics
The Criminal Profile
-demographics, physical characteristics, habits, pre-offensive behavior, post-offensive behavior
The Investigation
the profile is given to investigators and to organizations that may have data leading to the identification of a suspect; profile may be reassessed
The Apprehension
unfortunately, this stage only occurs in about 50% of the cases
Motus Operandi
an offender's method of operation
Signature
The choices an offender makes and the acts an offender committed that establish the theme of the crime; they are committed to satisfy psychological and emotional needs
Victimology
the thorough study and analysis of victim characteristics
Low Risk of Becoming a Victim
maybe someone with a steady job (would be missed easily), lots of friends, rarely travels alone
Medium Risk
more active than low risk, works with high risk people
High Risk
travels alone, out late at night, in contact with drugs or drug users, may be a low priority to police or anyone else checking on them
Mass Murder Motivational Typologies
Disciple, Annihilator, and Disgruntled Employee
Incest
sexual relationship with a near-relative (parent-child, grandparent-grandchild, sibling-sibling, uncles/aunts/1st or 2nd cousins [but not in every state], step-parents, and half-relatives.
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Pedophilia
regarded as incurable; may be adult male or female, heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, married or single; child is object of sexual interest.
Andrea Yates
Murdered 5 children by drowning in bathtub; plead guilty to charge via insanity and was committed
Hemy Neuman
killed a man in a daycarc parking lot; mentally ill but in prison for life without parole and mental health treatment is available
David Canter
an environmental psychologist, who was asked by New Scotland Yard in 1985 to integrate investigative and psychological concepts
Brent Turvey
created Behavioral Evidence Analysis (BEA)
John Douglas
known as the mindhunter
Jeffrey Dahmer
serial killer and sex offender who murdered 17 men and boys between 1978-1991
Ed Gein
killed two women in 1954, was committed due to mental health issues
Ted Bundy
murdered over 30 women and raped them post mortem
Gary Leon Ridgway
Green River Killer
Aileen Wuornos
murdered 7 men in 1989-1990
Ray and Faye Copeland
elderly couple who were convicted of murdering 8 drifters
Robert John Bardo
stalked and killed Rebecca Schaefer