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explains the origin, extent, and natures of crime in society

Criminal Justice

refers to the agencies of social control that handle criminal offenders

Biological Theory

belief that both heredity and / or chemicals of the body influence criminal behavior

Psychological Theory

belief that focuses on the psychological aspects of crime, including the associations among intelligence, personality, learning, and criminal behavior

Social Causes of Crime

the belief that influences from social groups/ peers influence criminal behavior

Economic Causes of Crime

the belief that financial successes/failures plays a part in influencing criminal behavior


unlawful killing of another human being with malice aforethought and with premeditation and deliberation


intentional killing committed under extenuating circumstances that mitigate the killing, such as killing in the heat of passion after being provoked


unlawful touching of another with intent to cause injury


intentional placing of another in fear of receiving an immediate battery


unlawful sexual intercourse with a female without her consent


wrongful taking and carrying away of personal property from a person by violence or intimidation

First Degree Murder

occurs when a person kills another after premeditation and deliberation

Second Degree Murder

requires the person to have malice aforethought but not premeditation or deliberation

Voluntary or Non-Negligent Manslaughter

killing committed in the heat of passion or during a sudden quarrel that provokes violence

Involuntary or Negligent Manslaughter

killing that occurs when a person's acts are negligent and without regard for the harm they may cause others (like motor vehicle deaths)

Single/Double/Triple Murder

One, 2, or 3 victims, one event, one location

Serial Murder

Serial murder occurs when one or more individuals commits a second murder and/or subsequent murder; it lacks a relationship (victim and attackers are strangers); occurs at a different time and has no connection to the initial (and subsequent) murder; and is frequently committed in a different geographic location.

Mass Murder

the act of killing three or more victims as part of a single ongoing killing event

Spree Murder

a single event with 2 or more locations and no emotional cooling-off period between murders

Statutory Rape

sexual relations between an under aged minor and an adult

Revolutionary Terrorism

uses violence to frighten those in power with the ultimate goal to replace the existing government (PLO)

Political Terrorism

directed at people or groups who oppose this terrorists' political ideology (white supremacy, Waco)

Nationalist Terrorism

promotes interests of a minority ethnic or religious group that has been persecuted under majority rule

Cause-Based Terrorism

use of violence to address a grievance (abortion)

Environmental Terrorism

fight for environmental causes

State-Sponsored Terrorism

government may actually cause this type against their own people to control them (genocide)

Actus Reus

evidence that the accused engaged in the act

Mens Rea

the mental state required to have intended to commit the act or foreseen its consequences

Profiling Input

Comprehensive case material, victimology, forensic information, preliminary police report, photographs

Decision Process

homicide type and style, primary intent, victim risk, escalation, time factors, location factors

Crime Assessment

reconstruction, crime classification, organized vs disorganized, victim selection, sequence of crime, staging, motivation, crime scene dynamics

The Criminal Profile

-demographics, physical characteristics, habits, pre-offensive behavior, post-offensive behavior

The Investigation

the profile is given to investigators and to organizations that may have data leading to the identification of a suspect; profile may be reassessed

The Apprehension

unfortunately, this stage only occurs in about 50% of the cases

Motus Operandi

an offender's method of operation


The choices an offender makes and the acts an offender committed that establish the theme of the crime; they are committed to satisfy psychological and emotional needs


the thorough study and analysis of victim characteristics

Low Risk of Becoming a Victim

maybe someone with a steady job (would be missed easily), lots of friends, rarely travels alone

Medium Risk

more active than low risk, works with high risk people

High Risk

travels alone, out late at night, in contact with drugs or drug users, may be a low priority to police or anyone else checking on them

Mass Murder Motivational Typologies

Disciple, Annihilator, and Disgruntled Employee


sexual relationship with a near-relative (parent-child, grandparent-grandchild, sibling-sibling, uncles/aunts/1st or 2nd cousins [but not in every state], step-parents, and half-relatives.


regarded as incurable; may be adult male or female, heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, married or single; child is object of sexual interest.

Andrea Yates

Murdered 5 children by drowning in bathtub; plead guilty to charge via insanity and was committed

Hemy Neuman

killed a man in a daycarc parking lot; mentally ill but in prison for life without parole and mental health treatment is available

David Canter

an environmental psychologist, who was asked by New Scotland Yard in 1985 to integrate investigative and psychological concepts

Brent Turvey

created Behavioral Evidence Analysis (BEA)

John Douglas

known as the mindhunter

Jeffrey Dahmer

serial killer and sex offender who murdered 17 men and boys between 1978-1991

Ed Gein

killed two women in 1954, was committed due to mental health issues

Ted Bundy

murdered over 30 women and raped them post mortem

Gary Leon Ridgway

Green River Killer

Aileen Wuornos

murdered 7 men in 1989-1990

Ray and Faye Copeland

elderly couple who were convicted of murdering 8 drifters

Robert John Bardo

stalked and killed Rebecca Schaefer

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