Russian Revolution - History 12 Test


Terms in this set (...)

Which country beat Russia at war, which led to embarrassment for the Czar?
What is the name of the royal family who originally ruled Russia?
The Romanov royal family
What is the name of someone who has complete control of the government?
What is Bloody Sunday?
Workers petitioned for better working conditions and shorter days at the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg. The Czar's soldiers open fired.
Why was the Duma established?
As news of bloody sunday spread, there were a lot of riots and strikes, so Tsar Nicholas agreed to the establishment of a Duma to help run the country.
Why did Tsar Nicholas dissolve the Duma?
Because the Duma tried to pass a law redistributing land to peasants
What happened that forced the Tsar to abdicate the throne?
He lost support from his army
Where did the Tsar go shortly before abdicating the throne?
Take personal control on the war front because everything was going so poorly. He was responsible for a string of defeats.
What was the first and unplanned revolution?
The Duma met and set up a temporary and provisional government after the Tsar left, until a democratic election could take place.
A new government promised wide freedoms - the unplanned revolution.
With group gained great power at the time of the provisional government?
The Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers
What was the most unpopular policy of the Provisional Government?
Staying in the war
Which controversial character influenced the royal family?
Why was the provisional government's control of the army weakened?
The Petrograd Soviet commanded soldiers not to take commands from their officers without it being also signed by a Soviet
Who was the leader of the Bolsheviks?
Who helped Lenin return to Russia and why?
Germany, because he was willing to make peace
What was the April Thesis?
When Lenin first arrived back in Russia after being in exile in Switzerland, he told the crowds that the Bolsheviks should plan to overthrow the provisional government, end the war, and hand the land over to the peasants.
Who was a valuable ally to Lenin?
Why did Lenin have to go into hiding in Finland not long after his arrival?
Many Bolsheviks demonstrated against the war without the backing of Lenin. Without a plan, their revolt was crushed.
What did General Kornilov (attempt) to do?
Set up military dictatorship because of lack of direction by the provisional government and the threat posed by the Soviets
Who was the leader of the provisional government?
What did the Red Army do in response to Kornilov's army?
Trotsky's army set up defense of the city, infiltrated Kornilov's army and convinced them to give up
When and how did Lenin and the Bolsheviks seize control of Petrograd?
October 1917 - a PLANNED revolution - the Provisional government is over
Who was the russian civil war fought between and who won?
Fought between the "reds" (Bolsheviks) and the "whites" (mixture supporters of the Czar and provisional government)

The Red army won
What was the outcome of the elections?
The Bolsheviks received only 25% of the vote - Lenin was unhappy and ordered the Red Army to shut it down. Opponents were shot.
What did Lenin give to the workers and peasants to gain support?
-Provided food to the workers
-Land to the peasants
What treaty was signed by Lenin to secure peace with Germany?
The Treaty of Brest- Litovsk
What was war communism, how was it applied, and why was it created?
What it was: Harsh state control of the economy.
Why: Lenin wanted to modernize the economy.

-peasants on the farms had to give up all of their crops to feed the Red Army.
> people were dying of starvation
What was the NEP and why was it introduced?
New economic policy. Introduced by Lenin after war communism was not working.

Peasants could sell their surplus food for profit or keep it to eat. This motivated them to be more efficient.
What was the treaty of Rapallo?
Little advancements in the heavy industries in Russia lead to trade agreements with Britain and Germany
After Lenin died, who was the power struggle between?
Trotsky (creator of the Red Army) and Stalin (General Secretary of the Party)
How was Stalin's power base built?
Using his position of party secretary - he was in charge of all hirings in the entire party. This allowed him to put his supporters in positions of power (ex. packing Congress with supporters)

He also had control of party membership - could get rid of people
What did the left AND right side of the party want to do in terms of NEP?
Left (Trotsky) - wanted to end NEP and go for rapid industrialization
Right - continue NEP
> Stalin had central views that took care of both sides
Who formed the United Opposition?
Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev
What did Stalin do in response to the United Opposition?
Kicked them (Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev) out as troublemakers and crushed their support
What did Stalin do in terms of increasing the production in the farmlands?
Abandoned NEP, aimed for rapid-industrialization

Forced collectivization to create larger units
Why did Stalin want to educate his people?
Needed educated people to work with new machinery and to keep up with the industrialization
Who started the communist revolution?
Karl Marx
What did Karl Marx ultimately believe and where were his ideas published?
Believed that capitalists (the rich people) should be overthrown. Published in communist manifesto.

Marx believed that one day the poor would rise up against their masters. No one could rely on others, everyone would work, and workers would run and own all of the industries, peasants would own all of the land.
What was "opium of the people?"
Religion, as stated by Karl Marx
Who were the Bourgeoisie?
The employing class
Who were the proletarians?
The industrial workers
What is a soviet?
A council of workers and soldiers
What was order No.1?
If an officer gives an order, it needs to be followed only if it is co-signed by a Bolshevik
What territory did Russia lose in the Treaty of Brest Litovsk?
East Russia
What did Stalin think the anti-communist countries would do?
Eventually join together to attack Russia to destroy communism
What was the trial of sixteen?
The first of public trials by Stalin (including Zinoviev, Kamenev, and others) to purge the party of rivals. They were accused of conspiracy and admitted publicly to crimes they had not committed, ending up in them being shot soon afterwards.
What happened during the Great Terror?
The purge affected ordinary citizens of the Soviet Union - anyone heard criticizing Stalin were sent to the gulags, etc.

the great terror ended any opposition to Stalin's rule
What is "cult of personality"?
History literally rewritten by Stalin - people who fell out of a favour were removed from history books
What is the concept of Deep Operations?
Multiple operations conducted in parallel instead of a single operation

> developed to utilize corps/army sized formations simultaneously
Five Year Plans
Army was modernized
Social programs
Why was Russia seen as a threat to capitalist countries?
Because they used the Comintern (an organization whose aim was to spread communism internationally) to promote communism
Why did Lenin withdraw from the league of nations?
To "safeguard" the revolution
Why did Stalin remove the kulaks ?
They resisted collectivization - didnt want to give up their land