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The American Pageant 12e Chapter 40 The Stalemated Seventies, 1968-1980
Terms in this set (76)
(economics) the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time
a general and progressive increase in prices
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
"Nixon Doctrine" (1969)
Redefined the role of America as that of a helpful partner rather than a military protector.
Vietnam moratorium (1969)
American "doves" and antiwar protestor were not satisfied with "vietnamization" and preferred a prompt withdral. Antiwar protesters did a Vietnam moratorium in October 1969 where 100,000 people went into the Boston Common and 50,000 people went by the white house with lighted candles.
My Lai massacre (1968)
An army unit led by Lieutenant William Calley massacred several hundred S. Vietnamese in My Lai Village. Mostly killed women and children. Became a symbol of the brutality and immorality of the war.
Cambodian invasion (1970)
Troops wanted to destroy Vietcong bases there. caused many protests(Kent state University)
Kent State/Jackson State (1970)
4 students killed by National Guardsmen after violent protesting in this university, , Black Mississippi College, anti war demonstrators seize womens dorm, unprovoked state police open fire, kill 2 (innocent & unarmed, wound 12)
Tonkin Gulf Resolution repeal (1970)
The Senate repealed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution that was originally given to Johnson and it restrained spending in the war and it reduced the draft.
Twenty-sixth Amendment (1971)
lowered the voting age from 21 to 18
a former American military analyst employed by the RAND Corporation who precipitated a national political controversy in 1971 when he released the Pentagon Papers, a top-secret Pentagon study of government decision-making about the Vietnam War, to The New York Times and other newspapers.
Pentagon Papers (1971)
revealed that the govt. drew up plans to enter the war, even as Johnson promised he would not send US troops to Vietnam; no plans to leave the war as long as N. Vietnam continued
The main negotiator of the peace treaty with the North Vietnamese; secretary of state during Nixon's presidency (1970s).
Nixon went to China in Feburary 1972 and improved relations with the U.S. and China. Nixon then used this new relation with China in order to win trade with the Soviets.
1970s, thawing of East-West tensions, due to Soviet thinking that arms race was unsustainable, US financial issues, Willy Brandt's Ostpolitik
Antiballistic missile (ABM) treaty (1972)
A treaty that prohibited either the United States or the Soviet Union from using a ballistic missile defense as a shield, which would have undermined mutually assured destruction and the basis of deterrence.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) (1972)
with U.S.S.R. prescribed mutual limitations on defensive and offensive weapons and established SALT as a continuing process.
controversial Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (1953-1969); he led the Court in far-reaching racial, social, and political rulings, including school desegregation and protecting rights of persons accused of crimes.
Liberal Warren Court decisions
see those listed
Griswold v. Connecticut (1965)
Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that the Constitution implicitly guarantees citizens' right to privacy.
Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that a defendant in a felony trial must be provided a lawyer free of charge if the defendant cannot afford one.
Supreme Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police.
Warren E. Burger
Chief Justice that replaced Earl Warren in 1969. The Burger Court was supposed to reverse the liberal rulings of the Warren court, but it produced the most controversial judicial decision in Roe v. Wade which legalized abortion
Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)
Federal funds for children in families that fall below state standards of need. In 1996, Congress abolished AFDC, the largest federal cash transfer program, and replaced it with the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
A program established in 1972 and controlled by the Social Security Administration that provides federally funded cash assistance to qualifying elderly and disabled poor.
Philadelphia plan (1969)
Program established by Richard Nixon to require construction trade unions to work toward hiring more black apprentices. The plan altered Lyndon Johnson's concept of "affirmative action" to focus on groups rather than individuals. (1009)
Discrimination against the majority group -- think Bakke
Environmental Protection Agency (1970)
- Created by environmental protection act to enforce antipollution standards on businesses and consumers
Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA)
the federal regulatory compliance agency that develops, publishes, and enforces guidelines concerning safety in the workplace
Rachel Carson/Silent Spring (1962)
1962; from environmentalism movement; book about the impact of DDT on the food chain
Clean Air and Endangered Species Act
aimed at protecting and preserving the environment
Nixon's "southern strategy"
His attempt to woo conservative white voters from the democratic party by promising not to support new civil rights legislation.
George Stanley McGovern, Ph.D (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. McGovern lost the 1972 presidential election in a landslide to incumbent Richard Nixon. McGovern was most noted for his opposition to the Vietnam War. He is currently serving as the United Nations global ambassador on hunger.
In 1973 the U.S. withdrew the 27,000 troops and would reclaim 560 prisoners of war and South Vietnam would receive limited amount of U.S. support. North Vietnam would have troops in South Vietnam and an election was used to determine the future government of South Vietnam.
Richard Nixon's committee for re-electing the president. Found to have been engaged in a "dirty tricks" campaign against the democrats in 1972. They raised tens of millions of dollars in campaign funds using unethical means. They were involved in the infamous Watergate cover-up.
Watergate break-in (June 1972)
Led by Liddy and Hunt of the White House plumbers, the Repub. undercover team received approval to wiretap telephones at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington. Early one morning, a security guard foiled the break-in to install the bugs, and he arrested James McCord, the security coordinator of CREEP, and several other Liddy and Hunt associates.
White House plumbers
Name given to the special investigations committee established along with CREEP in 1971. Its job was to stop the leaking of confidential information to the public and press.
Sen. Sam Ervin
He was head of the Senate committee that conducted a long and televised series of hearings in 1973 to 1974.
John Dean III
former white hosue lawyer who accused top white house officials of obstructing justice and covering up #29
(RN), , VP under Nixon, resigned for extortion and bribery charges
president 1974-77, Nixon's Vice president, only person not voted into the White House, appointed vice president by Nixon: became president after Nixon resigned
A professor of Harvard law school who also worked with the Department of Labor. He was the appointed Special Prosecutor over the Watergate case.
"Saturday night massacre" (1973)
name given to an incident in
which Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor who was relentlessly investigating Watergate; Richardson refused and resigned along with his deputy, who also refused to carry out Nixon's order. A subordinate then fired Cox. The incident created
a firestorm of protest in the country.
Cambodian bombings were continuing despite the fact that Nixon stated that Cambodian Neutrality was being respected. The secret bombings in Cambodia were to help a rightist Cambodian Government. The secret bombings won the disapproval of the people. Nixon agreed to a compromise to stop the bombings in six weeks and get congressional approval for any future action in Cambodia
Leader of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia, who terrorized the people of Cambodia throughout the 1970's
War Powers Act (1973)
Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress.
October War (1973)
It was a war between the Arabs and Israel. Its motive was for the Arabs to regain the territory lost to Israel in the Six-Day War. Kissinger went to Moscow to restrain the Soviets while Nixon placed America's nuclear forces on alert and gave the Israelis $2 billion dollars worth of war supplies. This helped the Israelis and brought a cease fire.
Arab Oil Embargo (1974)
After the U.S. backed Israel in its war against Syria and Egypt, which had been trying to regain territory lost in the Six-Day War, the Arab nations imposed an oil embargo, which strictly limited oil in the U.S. and caused a crisis.
when Carter entered office inflation soared, due to toe the increases in energy prices by OPEC. In the summer of 1979, instability in the Middle East produced a major fuel shortage in the US, and OPEC announced a major price increase. Facing pressure to act, Carter retreated to Camp David, the presidential retreat in the Maryland Mountains. Ten days later, Carter emerged with a speech including a series of proposals for resolving the energy crisis.
Built in 1975 along the pipeline to Valdez, it was an above-ground pipe 4 feet in diameter used to pump oil from the vast oil fields of northern Alaska to the tanker station in Valdez Bay where the oil was put aboard ships for transport to refineries in the continental U.S..
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
An international oil cartel dominated by an Arab majority, joined together to protect themselves.
Articles of impeachment
It was passed by the House Judiciary Committee and its key vote came in July 1974 when Nixon was accused of obstruction of justice with Watergate. Other articles talked of Nixon's abuse as president and his contempt for congress.
Nixon resignation (August 8, 1974)
When Nixon resigned, 3 tapes were released with one of them containing orders for the Watergate Break in and he confessed to his Watergate involvement on television. These events ruined Nixon's creditability and he was able to keep his retirement benefits.
Within his first month of Presidency, Gerald Ford gave full pardon to Nixon. Which aroused fierce criticism, and soon his approval ratings went from 71% to 50%.
Helsinki accords (1975)
Political and human rights agreement signed in Helsinki, Finland, by the Soviet Union and western European countries.
Vietnam collapsed with out American aid as the last Americans were taken out of Vietnam in 1975. It made America look bad in front of other foreign countries and caused America to lose confidence in its military. The War also took a toll on America's economy and its people with $118 billion spent, 56,000 dead, and 300,000 wounded.
Title IX (1972)
Forbids gender discrimination in federally subsidized education programs
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Proposed the 27th Amendment, calling for equal rights for both sexes. Defeated in the House in 1972.
Roe v. Wade (1973)
Abortion rights fall within the privacy implied in the 14th amendment
1970s; a new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s
wrote The Feminine Mystique credited with starting the second wave of woman's liberation movement, question domestic fulfillment, founded NOW
National Organization for Women (NOW)
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
Milliken v. Bradley (1974)
This Supreme Court decision responded in some ways to the backlash against integration via busing by stating that busing was only legal where schools were deliberately using racist tactics to segregate schools. It also said that the goal of Swann was not to create racially balanced schools with certain numbers of each race but to stop wilful segregation.
The assertion that affirmative action programs that require preferential treatment for minorities discriminate against those who have no minority status.
Bakke case (1978)
saw the Supreme Court barely rule that Allan Bakke had not been admitted into U.C. Davis because the university preferred minority races only and ordered the college to admit Bakke.
United States v. Wheeler (1978)
-facts: Indian is convicted in tribal court and later charged with same offense from same act (a rape) in federal court.
-HELD: SCOTUS won't apply double jeopardy bar to litigation, because under the 5th Amendment, it is not the same offense when two SOVEREIGNS prosecute the same person.
The 39th President who created the Department of Energy and the Depatment of Education. He was criticized for his return of the Panama Canal Zone, and his last year in office was marked by the takeover of the American embassy in Iran, fuel shortages, and the Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, which caused him to lose to Ronald Regan in the next election.
Department of Energy
the federal department responsible for maintaining a national energy policy of the United States
the basic rights to which all people are entitled as human beings
Camp David accords (1978)
Peace treaty between Egypt and Israel; hosted by US President Jimmy Carter; caused Egypt to be expelled from the Arab league; created a power vacuum that Saddam hoped to fill; first treaty of its kind between Israel and an Arab state
Return of Panama Canal
Carter proposed two treaties that would give ownership and control of the Panama Canal back to Panamanians by the year 2000. The return of the Panama Canal was one of Carter's accomplishments in foreign policy.
Mohammed Reza Pahlevi
Shah of Iran who was deposed in 1979 by Islamic fundamentalists (1919-1980)
Brezhnev and SALT II negotiations (1979)
Carter and Brezhev met in Vienna to sign the SALT agreements which were meant limit the number of lethal strategic weapons in both U.S. and Russia. U.S. conservatives were against the agreement and suspicious against Russia. The conservative stance was strengthened against the agreements when it was discovered that there was a Soviet "combat brigade" in Cuba.
Iranian hostage crisis (1979-1980)
On November 4, 1979 anti-American Muslim militants went to the United States' embassy in Teheran and took everyone inside hostage. Their demand was to restore the exiled shah who went to the U.S. for medical treatment.
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini
Iranian religious leader of the Shiites
Afghanistan invasion and Olympic boycott
Carter: Soviets invade dec 27,1979. wests worse fears. boycott to react to soviets invasion. proposed "rapid deployment force" in response. foreign policy
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