176 terms


Helping Relationships

Terms in this set (...)

therapeutic alliance
btw counselors/clients- most important predictors of whether clients will benefit from counseling; depends largely on counselor's ability to express warmth and empathy, confront when necessary, make accurate interpretations/reflections, listen actively, work with clients to set goals, and recognize and reinforce client successes
clients' unwillingness to work on their problems and initiate changes in their lives; counselors must explore with their clients any resistant behaviors; may be due to anxiety control, non-compliance, negative social influence
5 factor model
one of the most important, influential, and comprehensive explorations into personality ever developed; Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Aggreeableness, and Neuroticism;
stages of counseling
Relationship-building (counselor establish an open, trusting, and collaborative rel with the client; explain IC, counseling process, and clarify roles and responsibilities); action/intervention (target issues to be addressed, establish goals, assessment conduction, techniques and interventions); termination (counselor's respon to effectively end the counseling rel, initiated after client's have met goals, help clients process emotions about ending, highlight successes/progress, encourage future progress, summarize, make referral to other counselor if client isn't progressing)
triadic-dependent model
most familiar form of consultation; consultant, consultee, and client; consultee seeks advice from expert (consultant) about a third party (client); consultee relies on consultant for help in resolving the client's problem; it's the consultee who actually puts the consultant's recommendations into action; Ex: counselor who is having trouble helping a certain client may consult with her supervisor
collaborative-dependent model
consultee still relies on the consultant for help while both parties contribute their skills to resolve problem; Ex: teacher approaches school counselor about a student- collaborate to help student bc they both possess distinctive abilities and info that are critical to reaching a resolution.
collaborative-interdependent model
ideal for addressing problems that are intricate and involve the larger society; no "expert" is part of this model; EX: used to approach a problem of how to reduce the number of homeless youth- participants including parents, counselor, students, sw, community members, etc- all responsible for sharing their ideas and working cooperatively and collaboratively to brainstorm and implement solutions
consultation process
consultant establishes rapport with consultee, explains consultation process, and defines responsibilities of each member; next consultant works with consultee to assess/define problem and establish goal- solutions come up with; after intervention executed, consultant and consultee determine effectiveness and whether it makes sense to terminate rel or return to devise another strategy; process continues until overarching objective has been met
PFA- psychological first aid
evidence based approach used to respond to ind who have experienced a disaster, terrorist attack, or other disturbing event; counselors should assess needs of ind and aid them in getting their most basic needs met, then provide victims with comfortable environment and info about situation to clear up confusion/misconceptions; help connect survivors to family and friends to help support and community org to assist them in other needs; respect ind's desires and not coerce them into talking if they're not ready/interested
verbal/nonverbal behaviors are used by the counselor to convey to the client that he/she is actively listening and interested; nonverbal- appropriate eye contact, facing in open stance, head nodding, gesturing, silence; verbal- encouragers (door opener and minimal)
allows counselors to express empathy and encourages further discussion; gives clients the opportunity to clarify their thoughts/feelings if the counselor does not accurately reflect client thoughts/feelings
repeating back the essence of what a client has said in the counselor's own words; used to convey understanding, check the accuracy of the counselor's comprehension, and summarize the significant elements that have been disclosed by the client
condensing the important aspects discussed over a substantial period of time into a succinct synopsis; to tie together important themes, patterns, feelings, facts, and plans;
informing clients about the discrepancies in their words, behaviors, feelings, or nonverbal communication in order to increase their self awareness so they can become more congruent
suggesting possible reasons for client behavior, thoughts, feelings, or helping clients recognize hidden meaning in their actions
used to help connect with the client, give feedback, or provide client with alternative perspectives or ideas; should benefit the client
sharing thoughts, feelings, and impressions about the client directly with the client; helps clients gain increased self-awareness so that they can confront inconsistencies in their own attitudes and know how they're affecting others; to reinforce client progress; ask permission before giving feedback- given using "I" statement
Freud's psychoanalytic theory- people's actions are predetermined by forces of which they are unaware
Freud- based on the belief that psych disorders stem from people's unconscious conflicts and repressed desires; to help clients make the unconscious conscious (the unknown known); help clients address unresolved psychosexual dev stages, learn effective coping mechanisms, and become more insightful about themselves; require a restructuring of clients' personalities; long/expensive process; analyze transference and resistance; interpretation of clients thoughts, emotions, behaviors, dreams- to increase their self-awareness and understanding of their unconscious desires
dream content
manifest- symbolism in dreams with meaning that is easily perceived; latent- symbolism in dreams that is harder to understand/interpret; royal road to the unconscious; represent unmet wishes/desires
ego psychology
help people whose egos have become conflicted by drives and desires adapt to their environment through resolving these conflicts, leading to a more autonomous ego
interpersonal psychoanalysis
people's mental disorders stem from dysfunctional patterns of interpersonal rel and their rel with the analyst in the hopes of finding explanations for their disorder; more focused on present client interactional patterns rather then events from the past
object relations theory
people's personalities are developed through early parent-child interactions; healthy dev is based on satisfying interpersonal rel; objects are people/things that meet a child's need; concerned with how children represent/relate to the objects in their environment
psych disorders result from unsatisfied dev needs; clients benefit more from analyst empathy than interpretation
individual psychology/Adlerian psychology
healthy ind have social interest and compassion for other people; highly optimistic and holistic view of human nature; all inds strive to become successful/for growth; examining client's lifestyles, cog fx, family constellations to help them dev insight into their lives and change their lifestyles to one that promoted greater growth and wholeness; help clients increase their social interest and reduce feelings of inferiority; dev a trusting, egalitarian rel with clients, assessing their lifestyles, and using teaching/interpretation to help clients learn new ways of living; inferiority/superiority complex (early parent-child rel)
birth order (Adler)
firstborns- leaders, take over familial responsibility; second child- strive to differentiate, competitive, more relaxed/easygoing, expend more energy seeking parents' attention; middle child- feel left out/don't receive adequate attn, best able to adapt to new situations; youngest- pampered/spoiled, hard time later in life acting independently; only children- not as socially adept, spoiled, center of attn, excel in their pursuits
phenomenological philosophy (Adler)
not merely the early events that influence a person's lifestyle (established by 5 y/o), but rather that person's perception of those events
fictions (Adler)
people's beliefs about themselves/others that are false; people defined by these often lead unhealthy lifestyles; lead to behaviors of excessive need for success, need to gratify/be liked by everyone, low self-concept, and overgeneralization
Alder techniques
lifestyle analysis; encouragement; acting "as if" (practice new behaviors- as if they're the person they hope to be- capable); asking the ? (how would your life be diff if you were well?- ability to change); spitting in client's soup (point out behaviors so they no longer seem desirable to client); catching oneself (helps clients gain awareness of their self-defeating thoughts and behaviors and gives them resp for change- when engaging in beh that increase prob); pushbutton tech (teach clients they play a role in maintaining probs- push positive button- have control over how they respond, perceive, and recollect people/events)
Jungian (analytic) psychology
focuses on the role of the larger culture, spirituality, dreams, and symbolism in understanding the human psyche; through exploring the unconscious, people's psych health could be improved; goal is to help people develop appropriate contact with their unconscious so they're neither overwhelmed by it nor completely unaware of its forces; people are able to undergo process of individuation (discovering one's true inner self- psych growth); through listening to msgs of dreams and waking imagination, people can reestablish contact with important parts of themselves
unconscious (Jungian)
personal- unique to the ind and includes info that at one time has been conscious (memories, desires, dreams), but has been forgotten/repressed- dream analysis helps; collective- not unique to each ind, but shared by the entire human race, archetypes (overarching human tendencies) are important for each person to become aware of so that they can become whole and individuated- studying art, religion, mythology, and dreams
archetypes (Jungian)
inherent templates for human thought/behavior; patterns of human experience that have existed since the dawn of humanity; the self- contains conscious and unconscious aspects of a person and is the primary archetype; the persona- the psych mask that all humans wear, allows to change behavior depending on social situation, enables people to disguise their true selves to adapt to new situations and fx appropriately in society; the shadow- the repressed/unknown aspects of each person, part of the self that a person doesn't want to acknowledge/accept, pos/neg, crucial to become aware so they don't project them onto other people; the anima- female traits that exist in the collective unconscious of men, irrationality; the animus- male traits that exist in the collective unconscious of women, rational thought- love at first sight is explained by people's recognition of their anima/animus in another person
complex (Jungian)
a result of repressed thoughts and desires in the unconscious; revolve around an archetype; symbolize issues that a person needs to resolve; "mother complex"
personality typology (Jungian)
consists of 2 attitudes (introversion/extraversion) and 4 functions comprised of 2 pairs (sensation/intuition and thinking/feeling); each person possesses each attitude and fx to some degree; Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
explication (Jungian)
used to help clients determine the reason why certain objects appeared in their dreams; he didn't believe that images in dreams have hidden symbolism (like Freud); he believed that an object in a dream is exactly what it appears to be but that it is important to discover WHY the unconscious chose that specific object as opposed to other, similar objects
amplification (Jungian)
to help understand images in dreams; to amplify an image, he compared the dreamer's image to stories/images in myths, fairy tales, literature, art, and folklore; helps the analyst identify central archetypes and possible meanings behind dreams
active imagination (Jungian)
requires clients to actively talk to the characters in their dreams; might be asked to talk to characters in the dream and ask them why they used a certain object or engaged in a particular action; it is thought that clients can connect with their unconscious
cognitive behavioral theories
work to alter both the thoughts and actions of clients; "second force" of counseling
scientific, research-based theory of counseling that aims to modify clients' maladaptive behaviors; behaviorists concern themselves with what can be observed and seen in clients, rather than focusing on the indeterminate, mysterious workings of the mind (psychodynamic); use concrete techniques to help clients change their behavior rather than trying to delve into clients' childhood experiences or interpret their behavior; believe that all behavior is learned and therefore can be unlearned
shaping (behaviorism)
reinforces successive approximations of a desired behavior; a difficult, anxiety provoking, or new task is broken down into smaller steps, with the successful accomplishment of each step being reinforced, gradually building up to the performance of the target behavior
maintenance (behaviorism)
clients' ability to perform desired behaviors without continual reinforcement or help from others
extinction (behaviorism)
termination of a behavior by withholding reinforcement; extinction burst- the undesired behavior would likely increase in frequency and intensity at the onset of this technique
behavioral rehearsing/role-playing (behaviorism)
when clients are learning new behaviors, the counselor might engage them in this; clients practice/rehearse new behaviors in a safe environment until they feel confident enough to try new behaviors outside of the counseling environment; counselor provides client with feedback
environmental planning (behaviorism)
having clients rearrange their environments to encourage/discourage certain behaviors
assertiveness training (behaviorism)
teachings clients distinction btw aggression, passivity, and assertiveness; through use of shaping, modeling, and behavioral rehearsal, clients learn to speak up for themselves in an appropriate manner
contingency contracts (behaviorism)
chart/table that lists desired behaviors, provides a space for noting whether the desired behaviors were achieved, and describes the conditions that must be met for the individual to be rewarded; used with children; keep up with completion of chores
token economy (behaviorism)
used with children and provides clients with rewards for demonstrating desired behavior; teachers are given tokens (secondary reinforcers) to students when they behave appropriately; tokens can be traded for primary reinforcers (candy, toys); to implement, a goal that details the desired behavior must first be set, then teacher must establish set schedule for reinforcing behavior; number of times child is reinforced and given a token will decrease until he is able to maintain the behavior without reinforcement
response cost (behaviorism)
reduces undesirable behaviors by removing a positive reinforcement; used with a token economy
implosion/implosive therapy (behaviorism)
having clients imagine hypothetical scenarios that would cause them severe anxiety until they become desensitized to them
time-out (behaviorism)
aversive behavioral technique (punishment) that removes a child so that he/she is no longer able to receive any kind of positive reinforcement
overcorrection (behaviorism)
aversive behavioral technique; requires client to return the environment to its original condition prior to the undesirable behavior and then to make the environment better; done repeatedly to serve as a deterrent to future misbehavior
Cognitive behavioral modification
Meichenbaum; cb approach that trains clients to alter their internal cognitions (self-talk/self-statements) in order to change the way they react/respond to situations; faulty self-statements lead to deleterious behavior and negative emotions
cog restructuring
used to help clients adjust their self-talk; targeting the client self-statements that result in problematic behaviors or feelings and replacing them with new statements that are more rational, logical, and positive; counselor models by using them in a hypothetical situation that would be stressful for the client; client is encouraged to imagine a stressful situation and discuss out loud the statements she would use to help herself through the situation
self-instructional training
teaches clients how to alter their thoughts/behavior; counselors demonstrate appropriate behaviors and thoughts to clients, explaining reasons; clients asked to demonstrate the same behavior and repeat the instructions aloud to themselves; clients continue practicing by speaking outloud/to themselves
(SIT) stress inoculation training
combines cog and behavioral tech to help clients learn how to cope with stress; conceptualization, skills acquisition and rehearsal, and application and follow through
cognitive therapy
Beck; posits that people's emotions and behaviors are a direct result of their cognitions; if clients can change their cognitions, they can also change their negative/harmful feelings/actions; discerning then restructuring clients' automatic thoughts (immediate, unhealthy, internal cognitions)
distorted thinking
inaccurate thoughts or ideas that maintain dysfunctional thinking and negative emotions; dichotomous thinking (all/nothing), selective abstraction (focus only on neg aspects of situation), overgeneralization (conclusion based on limited info/experience), magnification/catastrophize (exaggerate personal flaws/situations); minimization/discounting (when people fail to recognize/take ownership of their successes); labeling (define self based on perceived imperfections); mind reading (people believe they know what others are thinking about them without any evidence); neg predictions/fortune telling (anticipate something bad will happen and alter behaviors accordingly, self-fulfilling prophecy)
cog rehearsal
helps clients practice using their new thoughts before implementing them in an actual situation; counselors ask clients to imagine certain scenarios and describe positive self-statements they would use to promote healthy behavior, emotions, and interpersonal interactions
homework (directives)
to reinforce learning and skill acquisition outside of therapy
therapeutic writing; clients write down their thoughts, which helps to clarify and enhance them
thought stopping
teaches clients how to interrupt a pattern of neg self-statements or thinking and involves the substitution of one thought for another; asked to yell "stop" in their head until their self-defeating thoughts end; encouraged to create healthy thoughts to repeat to themselves whenever certain neg thoughts arise; clients gain control over their thinking
events in and of themselves are neither good/bad, therefore a person's feelings are not a direct result of an event, rather somewhere btw the activating event and the emotional consequence, people engage in self-talk either rational/irrational that triggers certain emotions; the rational/irrational beliefs are what produce people's emotional responses to any given event; inappropriate feelings impede people from feeling happy or satisfied and cause unnecessary pain/suffering
irrational thoughts (REBT)
must, should, have to, supposed to- people place extraordinary demands on themselves that usually lead to emotional consequences; goal is to dispute these IBs and help them change their musts, shoulds, wants, and wishes; desires encourage people to change rather than become hopeless and helpless like demands do
explain the core beliefs of the theory and help clients understand the root of their emotions; (A)- event/experience that elicits negativity/unease, (B)- rational/irrational belief systems in response to (A) and are what result in (C)- an emotional consequence that is either beneficial/detrimental; clients can see that (C) results from (B) and not (A); IBs must be disputed (D), with the goal of developing an effective new philosophy (E) that allows people to replace their IBs with rational beliefs
reverse role-playing (REBT)
to show clients how to dispute their IBs; counselor pretends to be the client and holds dearly to the client's IBs while the client plays the counselor and attempts to persuade the "client" to think in a more rational manner; clients can actively practice disputing IBs
rational emotive imagery (REBT)
client is asked to imagine the anxiety-provoking situation; counselor asks client to stay with the difficult, painful emotions that surface and allow himself to be flooded with all of his IBs; counselor asks client to construct his new rational belief and then repeat it over and over until he can feel a shift from his dysfunctional emotion to self-helping emotion; client can apply this skill in life and generalize to new experiences
emotional control cards (REBT)
given by counselors to clients to help reinforce the disputation of IBs outside of the counseling sessions; list appropriate/inappropriate feelings, which can serve as reminders to clients who are having a hard time
shame attack exercises (REBT)
assigned when clients have an IB that interferes with their ability to engage in certain activities; ask clients to participate in an activity that normally creates anxiety to help them realize that the outcomes are not as nearly as embarrassing or devastating as they imagine
Reality therapy
Glasser; based on the underlying theory of choice theory- to work with children in education; people make choices to meet their 5 basic needs- survival, belonging, power, freedom, and fun; people can make decisions that result in healthy, positive lives or they can make decisions that result in self-destructive, unhappy lives; people are self-determining and have control over their behavior; counselors serve as educators/models, helping clients understand that they are in control of their actions and encourage them to assess whether their current behaviors are meeting their needs constructively and healthy; clients work with counselors to develop alternative ways to meet their needs without harming themselves/others; past behaviors are unimportant bc they cannot be changed
criteria for healthy behavior (reality)
behavior is noncompetitive; behavior is easily completed without a great deal of mental effort; behavior can be done by oneself; behavior has value for the person; client believes that improvements in lifestyle will result from behavior; client can practice the behavior without being self-critical
planning (reality)
collaborating with clients to help them develop a plausible plan for how to fulfill their wants/needs in a beneficial manner; written out as contracts and list many alternatives for how clients can successfully meet their needs; clients learn there are many diff choices they can make that will lead to favorable outcomes; clients aren't allows to give excuses for failing to carry through on plan- counselors don't penalize or condemn clients who don't uphold the plan; clients take full respon for themselves/choices
WDEP system (reality)
Wants (counselors ascertain what clients want/need and what actions they have been taking to fulfill their needs); Doing (counselors examine clients' actions, thoughts, and feelings); Evaluation (counselors encourage clients to evaluate their current behavior and whether it's healthy/responsible by questioning them); Plan (clients come up with a plan for meeting their needs in new ways; specific, realistic, measurable, and clients should express their resolution to carry out the plan)
humanistic counseling
belief in human goodness and the ability of all ind to strive toward self-actualization given the proper environment; showing clients UPR and allowing them to direct the sessions; don't attempt to analyze clients/focus on past; trust clients have the ability to make important changes in their lives without being directed- if counselors provide clients with a safe, trusting environment, clients will naturally move toward personal growth; Rogers, Maslow, Perls, Frankl, Rollo May, Virginia Satir
existential counseling
Frankl, Rollo May; assists clients in addressing universal questions about life, death, and freedom and helps them find meaning in their lives; people have free will; showing clients UPR and allowing them to direct the sessions; don't attempt to analyze clients/focus on past; trust clients have the ability to make important changes in their lives without being directed- if counselors provide clients with a safe, trusting environment, clients will naturally move toward personal growth;
client-centered/person-centered counseling
Carl Rogers; not necessary for therapists to be directive for client change to occur; clients would set the pace of counseling/determine the focus of each session; downplayed use of techniques- focusing on the dev of a trusting, genuine, and accepting therapeutic rel to facilitate change
phenomenological perspective (CC)
counselors focus on how clients perceive an event rather than the event itself; ultimate goal is for counselors to help clients resolve any disparities btw their beliefs about themselves/reality; clients must reconcile their "Ideal self" (what they're striving to become) and their "real self" (what they are) to become pyschologically adjusted/healthy
core conditions of counseling (CC)
genuineness/congruence (authentic, honest with clients, and ensure their own verbal/nonverbal comm is congruent; helps to build trust); respect/acceptance/UPR (may not agree with everything client does, but counselors must continue to comm their acceptance of the client as a person; accept/price clients no matter what, freeing them to dev a more congruent, integrated identity); empathy (successfully enter client's worldview and are able to convey their understanding of a client's thoughts, feeling, and actions)
CC techniques
de-emphasize use of specific techniques, focusing more on the dev of a therapeutic alliance that incorporates the core conditions of counseling; reflecting skills, invitational skills, confronting, and summarizing
logotherapy (existen)
focuses on ind's search for meaning in their lives; meaning can be found in everything, even the worst of circumstances; people find meaning in their lives through achievement/creation, suffering, and experiencing/appreciating people and the world around them; process of helping clients identify/seek meaning in their lives
existential vacuum (existen)
without meaning, people experience this- meaninglessness
anxiety (existen)
interferes with people's ability to accomplish goals; believed that whereas it is beneficial to experience moderate amounts of anxiety, too much causes people to avoid certain activities and actions; goal of counseling to explore clients' anxiety, find meaning in it, and help them work through it so they can make decisions that bring them closer to their life goals.
paradoxical intention (existen)
technique that involves prescribing the s/s; if a client says she cannot stop crying, the counselor might tell her to cry all day; client with insomnia might be told to try to stay up all night; the fear/anxiety accompanying the s/s is removed and clients are able to recognize that they have some control over expression of the s/s
gestalt therapy
Fritz Perls; gestalt- "the organization of facts, perceptions, behavior, or phenomena, and not the ind items of which they are composed, that defines them and gives them their specific and particular meaning;" to neglect these patterns is to not fully understand that person; counselors are facilitators that must be willing to frustrate and confront clients when it's determined that they are not being genuine or taking responsibility for themselves- through this, clients are able to see the thought/behavior patterns contributing to their neuroses
homeostasis (gestalt)
human beings seek to maintain this state of balance; people are continually taking inventory of their needs, prioritizing, and tending to their needs so as to maintain health and well-being; physiological and psych; when a person is chronically unable to recognize, prioritize, and find ways to successfully alleviate their needs, they fall into a neurotic state; attempts to help these people with neuroses by facilitating an awareness of their most important needs and what they must do to allay these needs; when a need is satisfied, a gestalt is closed, and the client can move on to the next most pressing need
holistic doctrine (gestalt)
the mind-body connection is seen as a powerful way to heighten clients' awareness; key to clients' improvement and self-understanding; alerting clients to physical movements they unwittingly make so clients will become increasingly aware of their body language as it relates to their unexpressed emotions; thinking and doing are linked- how a person processes problems mentally can help to explain how that person behaves, vice versa; people are able to formulate and fantasize about solutions to their problems before acting them out in real life-psychodrama
contact boundary (gestalt)
how a person makes contact and interactions with her environment/field (any social interaction/contact with the community) is essential to the understanding of that person; people make either a healthy/unhealthy contact with their environment, or healthy/unhealthy withdrawal from their environment; people with neuroses are so overwhelmingly preoccupied with the unfinished business in their lives that they are unable to judge when contact/withdrawal with their environment would be necessary/beneficial
unfinished business (gestalt)
the past which remains in the present; to help ind with neuroses become integrated and self-supportive through resolving their unfinished business; clients will then be able to interact with their environment in a way that satisfies their needs without infringing on the field
experiments (gestalt)
techniques conducted spontaneously
exercises (gestalt)
techniques that are preplanned
here and now therapy (gestalt)
encourages clients to discuss only what is bothering them in the present moment; counselor may begin by asking client to finish the statement "Now I am aware..."- urges clients to speak in the present tense and through the use of "I," they are asked to take responsibility for their thoughts; clients become aware of how they are thinking and feeling at every moment- helps them define their most pressing problems and seek solutions
psychodrama (gestalt)
to help clients understand their internal conflicts; having clients play a variety of roles simultaneously, which allows them to engage in discussion with conflicting parts of their personalities
empty chair (gestalt)
clients asked to talk to someone with whom they are in conflict; facilitates a dialogue btw the client and the other individual
social constructionism
multicultural counselors strive to determine how clients construct their lives and their realities; once dysfunctional patterns of behavior are identified, counselors can work with clients to help them reconstruct their lives to be more health enhancing
strengths-based perspective
multicultural counselors approach clients from this perspective, rather than a deficits-based perspective; instead of focused on clients' problems/weaknesses, they hone in and build on clients' strengths and successes to initiate change
Narrative therapy
Michael White and David Epston; concerned with how ind reauthor their lives; believe that people construct stories about themselves and their lives (self-narratives) which help clients dev a consistent identity; goal is to help clients who are experiencing difficulties in their lives to reauthor their self-narratives to promote greater wellness; clients are viewed as the experts and it's the counselor's responsibility to assist them in deconstructing/reconstructing their life stories
problem-saturated stories
self-narratives that are harmful and detrimental to their well-being;
dominant narratives
counselors work with clients to reauthor these- cultural customs that adversely affect their lives (sexism, racism, and ageism)
thin/think descriptions (narr)
help clients who possess thin self-narratives to create think self-narratives; (thin)- self-narrative that is imposed on a person by others that the ind then internalizes; (thick)- more complex and detailed and involves clients' interpretations of themselves, and the labels that are put on them by others- through the therapeutic process of creating alternative narratives, clients dev thick descriptions
problem externalization (narr)
of clients' problems; many clients view their problems as innate and hard to alter; therapists strive to help clients distance themselves from their problems, reconstruct their stories, and rid themselves of undesirable narratives; naming the problem and separating it from the client- blame is taken out of the equation and the client is given control over the problem; questions often seek to ascertain what clients are going through and how the problem is affecting their lives
unique outcomes (narr)
asking clients to identify times when their problems were not present or were less pronounced; tell them about a time when they were not controlled by their problems; help clients begin the process of creating alternative self-narratives- counselors then urge them to recount their stories repeatedly, and in considerable detail, to help them thicken and internalize these fresh narratives
outside witnesses (narr)
sometimes brought into sessions to help clients gain an outside perspective on themselves or to meet people who share a similar concern; talk about what they heard, what they connected with, and what affected them during the session- client is then given opportunity to discuss what it was like hearing from the witness; helps clients solidify their new self-narratives
definitional ceremony (narr)
when clients tell their new stories to an audience of outside witnesses; once the telling is complete, the witnesses are given the opportunity to comment on what they heard; helps clients thicken their stories
therapeutic letters (narr)
narrative therapists write these to clients following sessions; review what was discussed in the session and highlight important moments; ultimate goal is to keep the work that occurred during the session going long after the session has ended; letter writing can assist clients to internalize new self-narratives
solution focused brief therapy
Steve DeShazer; based on the assumption that all ind possess the ability and resources to solve their problems; maintains that people become immobilized by unsuccessful attempts to solve problems and that they need only to find new solutions to achieve change and progress; counselors believe that clients are the experts and their role is collaborate with clients to help them unearth these potential solutions; not concerned about history or seeking insight; goal is client change and instilling hope that change will happen; short term- no more than 10 sessions
core beliefs (SFT)
if clients are already doing something that works, they should continue doing it; if clients try something that doesn't work, they should stop doing it and try something else; if clients try something that works, they should do more of it
types of clients (SFT)
(visitors)- clients not at all ready/willing to change- don't recognize that a problem exists; (complainants)- clients who recognize the existence of a problem and can define it but have yet to commit to solving it; (customers)- most ideal clients- recognize that a problem needs to be fixed, committed to finding a solutions; difficult to help clients effectively improve their lives until they become customers
positive blame (SFT)
used to reinforce clients' capabilities when they successfully make a change/engage in a behavior that brings them closer to their goal; "how did you do that?" "what did you do that prevented the convo from turning into a fight?"
skeleton keys (SFT)
techniques that have worked before and have universal application; asking clients to do something different or to behave in a new manner- clients can use them to improve many diff situations and concerns
family theories
aim to ameliorate the fx of entire family units, rather than the one "symptomatic" individual; when a family as a whole develops healthier patterns of interaction, each individual member's psych state will also improve
psychodynamic model (family)
Ackerman; explored role of anxiety, defense mechanisms, and unconscious conflicts and desires in the fx of ind and families
general systems theory (family)
Ludwig von Bertalanffy; provides basic framework for understanding the interactions/issues that occur within family systems; more helpful to examine family rel/transactions btw members than to scrutinize the personalities/actions of any one member in isolation; families viewed as complex, organized systems, with each member influencing and being influenced by other members (circular causality)- no cause/effect in families
family rules (GST)
every family has rules that members abide by; some overtly stated, some subtle/unspoken; purpose is to establish a template of expected family behavior and to provide members with predictability and a foundation for interacting with each other; some preserve/enhance family fx, others don't; counselors reveal family's rules bc they provide insight into how the family fx, expose possible reasons for dysfunction, and point to rules that must be revised/discarded
homeostasis (GST)
tendency for families to sustain their normal fx and patterns of interaction unless someone/something intervenes
boundaries (GST)
help to separate the family system from outsiders and define roles and responsibilities within a family unit; in subsystems; can be rigid or flexible; must be well established, known, and understood by all members bc if boundaries are too blurred/rigid, they invite confusion or inflexibility, increasing the family's risk of instability and ultimate dysfunction
open/closed family systems (GST)
(open) have flexible boundaries, are open to change, and have ongoing interaction/involvement with their communities; (closed)- have rigid boundaries, are averse to change, and cordon themselves off from the outside world; families ideally have a balance btw the two, establishing clear boundaries with outsiders, while also allowing for exchange and interaction with them
Bowen family systems theory
Bowen; family of origin (in which person grows up); people are affected by their family of origin and they must resolve any issues from their childhood to keep from repeating dysfunctional patterns of interaction in future rel; examine the 8 elements influencing a family's operation (differentiation of self, triangles, nuclear family emotional system, family projection process, multigenerational transmission process, emotional cutoff, sibling position, and societal regression)
differentiation of self (bowen)
people's ability to separate themselves from their family of origin without cutting themselves off from their families; able to remain connected with family without becoming fused (enmeshed- highly dependent on the family and easily affected by family conflicts/emotional tension); able to encounter emotionally charged family situations/balance emotions with logic/rationality
triangles (bowen)
rel system comprised of 3 people; more stable than dyad- stress/tension can be spread out among 3; family creates a triangle when 2 members (parental subsystem) who are experiencing an uncomfortable amount of stress in their rel draw on 3rd member (child) to help release emotional tension; more differentiated a person, less likely he/she will need to triangulate to reduce the pressure of a rel
nuclear family emotional system (bowen)
formed based on the parental subsystem's degree of differentiation; ind are normally attracted to partners who have the same level of differentiation as they do; one undiff person is likely to marry another undiff person and create a fused family emotional system that eventually results in physical/emotional impairment in one of the spouses, marital discord, or a child with psych issues; the undiff person must work to become more diff from their families of origin, which will result in changes in the marital dyad and the nuclear family emotional system
family projection process (bowen)
when undiff parents project their tension and anxiety onto their most susceptible or sensitive child; as a result of this triangulation, the child often becomes symptomatic and the parents focus on the child as the source of the problem, rather than on themselves; through this process, the child ends up with the same low level of diff as the parents
multigenerational transmission process (bowen)
low levels of diff can be passed on through this; if undiff parents create undiff children, it's likely that those children will find similarly undiff marriage partners and begin the transmission process all over again
emotional cutoff (bowen)
children who are highly fused with their families and affected by the family projection process may try to emotionally cut themselves off from their family of origin to try and improve or maintain their well-being; moving, refusing to talk to family members, or only interacting with them on a surface level; until they truly resolve their issues with their family and increase their level of diff, they will still remain fused to their family of origin and that fusion will manifest itself in their marital rel and family system
sibling position (bowen)
people's birth order or sibling position substantially affects the personality traits they dev; marriages work out best when spousal roles match the partners' sibling positions from their families of origin
societal regression (bowen)
when a society that is experiencing too much stress regresses in its level of diff; like families, societies too could be either diff or undiff
asking questions (bowen)
counselor does this to facilitate clients' awareness and insight into their patterns of interaction
genogram (bowen)
visual representations of approximately 3 generations of a family; info such as members' names, ages, marriage dates, divorce dates, dates of deaths, important events, and symbols to describe rel patterns, fusion, and emotional cutoff; become aware of patterns of interaction that have occurred throughout a family's hx and work to resolve any dysfunction that becomes apparent
back home visits (bowen)
recommended for clients who have unresolved issues with their family of origin; goal is to increase the client's diff; prior to the visit, counselor works with client to prepare for the visits home and to achieve a beneficial outcome
detriangulation (bowen)
learning how to avoid becoming involved in triangles and how to avoid triangulating others; back home visits can help some clients with this
experiential family counseling
less concerned with techniques and more concerned with establishing a genuine rel with clients and helping them bring their problems into the here and now; approach each family in a different way- no two families are the same; to help family members become more aware of their emotions, become more self-actualizing, and increase their ability to interact with each other and give/receive love and affection in a more authentic and spontaneous manner (symbolic experiential family therapy and human validation model)
symbolic-experiential family therapy
Carl Whitaker; help families strike a balance btw independence and togetherness and learn how to interact with each other in a meaningful/natural way while moving away from the tendency to behave in the same monotonous patterns that led to the dysfunction; encourage clients to engage with one another and solve problems creatively instead of relying on previous habits; involve several generations of a family- study patterns of interaction; counselors search for and bring to the family's attention the hidden symbolism and impulses that underlie their interactions
human validation process model
Virginia Satir; innate goodness of humans, their desire to grow and learn, and their ability to change (like Carl Rogers); goal to create a warm, safe, and welcoming environ in which they would feel comfortable exploring their issues and beginning the process of change; s/s are viewed as ways to preserve the family's homeostasis and as obstructions to growth; emphasize the positive and endeavors to make use of resources families already possess to enact change
4 types of dysfunctional comm patterns (HVPM)
(placaters) agree with a try to please everyone; mollify people, are unsure of themselves, and often lack self-confidence; (blamers) critical of other people, charge others with wrongdoing, and fail to take any responsibility for their actions; (intellectualizers/super-reasonables) approach situations in a detached manner, rationalizing everything and never allowing their emotions to be shown; (distracters) want to avoid dealing with situations, so they distract others by introducing unrelated, irrelevant topics; modeling congruence to change these comm types
family sculpting
used to help the counselor and family more fully understand one family member's impression of family relationships; counselor asks family member to physically arrange entire family in the room- end result can be telling- were certain members put close to one another/far away?, some sitting/standing?- all details provide insight into family dynamics and fx
strategic family therapy
Milton Erickson; like behavioral approaches to counseling, emphasize altering behavior rather than helping clients gain insight and personal awareness; using directive strategies tailored to each family- aim to resolve the problem as quickly as possible; therapists are active during sessions and strike to quickly identify the presenting problem/enact a strategy to help the family begin to resolve it; MRI Interactional Family Therapy (Jay Haley)
quid pro quo (strat)
the propensity of ind to treat others like they are treated; one family member does something (favor) to get something from another member; reciprocal behavior; common btw marriage partners; present in all families and often is unspoken
redundancy principle (strat)
family members tend to interact with each other in the same way and it's usual for those patterns of behavior to change/expand
punctuation (strat)
conviction by ind that their verbal communication, esp during a conflict, occurs in reaction to someone else; people punctuate convos in the way that what one person says is caused by what the other says- but in reality there is no straightforward cause and effect rel in comm btw people
symmetrical rel (strat)
rel in a family btw equals; may become competitive bc there is not a dominant member
complementary rel (strat)
rel in a family btw unequals, where one member is "one down" and the other is "one up;" not necessarily negative- a family member who asks for help
relabeling/reframing (strat)
interpreting a family's situation in a new way to encourage family members to view their problem in a more favorable light; reframe problems in a way that increases the family's willingness to change their behavior and give them confidence they have the ability to solve their problem; teen who is rebellious- relabeled as a person who is seeking independence- behavior can be perceived by members as more understandable and may give them new ideas about how to handle the situation
paradoxical intention/prescribing the s/s (strat)
helps to lower client resistance to change; counselor tells clients to keep engaging in their troublesome behavior; decreases resistance and shows clients that they have control over behavior they thought was uncontrollable- recognize that they are choosing to perpetuate the problem
directives (strat)
homework assignments for clients to complete btw sessions; encourage clients, either directly or subtly (paradox) to participate in new behaviors
ordeal (strat)
a paradoxical technique that asks them to complete and undesirable but health-promoting task before participating in their worrisome behavior; run for 30 min before she can start crying- woman will stop crying so she doesn't have to run on treadmill all the time
pretend technique (strat)
clients are encouraged to simulate their s/s; they realize that they are able to exert some control over what they say/do, as well as over the outcome
Milan systemic family counseling
developed by MIlan group; departure from strategic FT; instead of examining patterns of interactions among family members and developing strategies to change them, this focuses more on exploring family members' perceptions of each other and their interactional patterns, as well as asking questions to increase their awareness of unhealthy family behaviors; the counselor collaborates with clients to set goals, and it's the family's responsibility to either work toward change or remain in their current style of functioning
long brief therapy (milan)
counselors only meet with families once per month; meet with the family for up to 12 months, giving their interventions enough time to take hold; counselors try to work in teams- two involved in each session and others observing behind mirrors;
positive connotations (milan)
similar to relabeling/reframing; attach positive motives to a family member's problematic behavior; a certain behavior may be explained as a way for that member to sustain family equilibrium
paradox/counterparadox (milan)
(paradox)- used to interfere with games that family members play to exert control over one another, used to address the family paradox of coming to therapy for help but then not wanting to make any changes, artful way of stimulating change without the family's knowledge; (counterparadox)- asks family members not to change too quickly and helps the family avoid resistance
circular questioning (milan)
to ascertain family members' diff in perspective about the family's situation, particular events, and rel within the family; asking member to comment on another; provides member with an awareness of not only their own perceptions but other members' perceptions as well; to help a family member understand that not everyone shares the same beliefs about the family as he/she does; to give members a clearer and more global understanding of the family's problem and themselves- leads to change
hypothesizing (milan)
counselors begin by formulating hypotheses from their very first contact with family and often arrive at sessions with hypotheses already conceived and ready to be confirmed/denied; to help family members change and gain more insight into their behavior; they are not supposed to be accepted as absolute truths
neutrality (milan)
the objective position that counselors adhere to when working with families; the counselor doesn't take sides with any of the members;
ritual prescriptions (milan)
paradoxical assignments that indicate certain actions to be taken on specific days and times by particular family members; to help families try new ways of behaving and interacting
structural family counseling
Minuchin; incorporates many of the GST concepts; concerned with examining and changing the structure and organization of families, including their hierarchies and subsystems; dysfunction results from faulty organization; the counselor is responsible for restructuring the family's organization to bring about improved functioning
structure (SFC)
how a family organizes itself; elements such as how members interact with one another, family rules/rituals, who exerts authority, how permeable the boundaries are, and what subsystems exist; a family's structure should have an internal hierarchy whereby the parents serve as the authority; essential for older children to have more duties/freedom than younger; complementarity of roles- parents should be families and work together to meet the needs of the family system using each one's skills
subsystems (SFC)
spousal, parental, sibling subsystems; each has unique patterns of interaction, rules, and tasks that are integral to the overall fx of the family; stronger the spousal subsystem, stronger the parental subsystem, and the better functioning of the entire family
boundaries (SFC)
btw the various subsystems should be semi-permeable and clearly delineated, allowing for a balance btw autonomy and involvement with the family unit; rigid, impermeable boundaries, characterized by too much subsystem independence and separation (disengagement) and diffuse, permeable boundaries, characterized by enmeshment (over-involvement) and dependence, often lead to dysfunction
alignments, power, and coalitions (SFC)
(alignments)- alliances btw family members; (power)- who exerts authority in a family in diff situations; (coalitions)- when some family members form an alignment against another family member
joining (SFC)
when structural family counselors first meet with a family, they engage in this with the family by imitating the manner, style, affective range, or content of its communications in order to solidify the therapeutic alliance with them; helps facilitate the family's comfort in the therapeutic process
structural maps (SFC)
visual representations of a family's coalitions, alignments, boundaries, and conflicts; counselors use these to help assess the family's strengths, weaknesses, and needs
enactment (SFC)
deliberate process by which the counselor encourages the family to play out its problem in the session; counselor observes while family members interact with each other- noting any alignments, coalitions, and structural problems and begin to formulate a plan to address them; provides the counselor with an opportunity to observe a family's issues and patterns of interaction firsthand
restructuring (SFC)
intervention that involves actively working to change the structure of a family system
unbalancing (SFC)
used to better establish a proper family hierarchy; might help parents learn how to be more authoritative instead of allowing their children to make decisions and control them, reaffirming the parental subsystem's power; work with the family to create clearer boundaries- work to create more separation btw certain members or more closeness
eclectic counseling
Thorne; professional counselors who draw from an assortment of theories in their work with clients; belief that no single counseling theory encompasses all the elements necessary to effectively help a client; (technical electicism)- counselors use just tech from a wide range of theories; (theoretical integration)- in which counselors strive to combine at least 2 theories into a unified whole
syncretism (eclectic)
when electicism can become problematic- when counselors use theories and techniques they are unable to implement adeptly or by which they randomly use a diverse range of tech without giving sufficient thought to why they are using them or how they will work together
multi-modal therapy
Lazarus; form of technical electicism; clients are assessed in 7 domains- BASIC ID; by determining which domains clients think they need the most assistance with, counselors develop a multi-modal tx plan that draws tech/interventions from myriad theories to target the concerns in each domain
BASIC ID (multi)
behavior, affect, sensations, imagery, cognitions, interpersonal rel, and drugs/biological functions/nutrition/exercise; (HELPING)- health, emotions, learning, personal, imagery, need to know, guidance of ABCs- Donald Keat
bridging (multi)
if the client indicates a preference for fx in the behavior domain, the counselor might start the process with a behavioral approach to strengthen the therapeutic alliance and increase the client's comfort with the process
firing sequence (multi)
when a client indicates a stressor, the counselor works with the client to determine the chain of events that led to the stressor affecting the client's life in a maladaptive way; counselor can help the client determine that neg connotations led to neg imagery (I), which led to neg affect (A), and a neg behavioral response (B) and ultimately distress; counselor can implement tech that address the client's needs related to cognition, imagery, affect, and behavior
eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
Shapiro; uses the concepts of adaptive info processing (AIP) theory and bilateral stimulation to enhance the brain's adaptive capabilities; brain is capable of adapting and learning from the events in our life- pathology dev when this adaptive process has not occurred or has not been completed around a traumatic/stressful event; for single event trauma to process unprocessed disturbing memories; helps client access troubling memory (target), name the motions/physiological sensations with the memory, identify cog distortion (neg belief) created bc of incomplete processing and a pos belief that will replace neg; after this assessment, therapist applies bilateral stimulation, activating both brain hemispheres to process memory- continues until client successfully processes event; success= no remaining affective disturbance or unwanted physiological sensations and and that the pos cog has replaced the neg belief and feels close to 100% true for the client
play therapy
systematic use of a theoretical model to establish an interpersonal process wherein trained play therapists use the therapeutic powers of play to help clients prevent/resolve psychosocial diff and achieve optimal growth and dev; a methodology- not a theory of counseling; allows many children to give voice to and work through their concerns with the assistance of the counselor; directive (selecting toys/activities for child to engage in) or non-directive (allow child to choose toys/guide the play)
transactional analysis
Berne; cog theory with roots in psychoanalysis; examining how clients interact with others; believed that if clients can change their styles of interaction, the result will be improved fx; goal to help people fx from all of their ego states
ego states (TA)
people operate from 3 common ego states in their interactions: parent, adult, or child; (parent)- criticism/nurturance of others and is often based on people's experiences with their parents when they were growing up and what they learned about how people should/should not behave; (adult)- rational thought and the absence of emotions in decision making; (child)- youthful beh and qualities- playfulness/spontaneity (natural child) and obedience/inhibition (adapted child); most people switch btw the 3 ego states depending on situation; problems arise when someone lacks versatility and approaches others from only one ego state in all situations
transactions (TA)
(complementary)- occur when 2 people interact with each other using the same or complementary ego state; (crossed)- when someone fx from an ego state that is undesirable/unsuitable for the others' wants/need; (ulterior)- when people seemingly operate from one ego state but are actually just concealing their true ego state
games (TA)
many ulterior transactions lead to these; ulteriorly motivation transactions that appear complementary on the surface but end up in bad feelings; counselors work with clients to help them avoid becoming involved in games and instead learn how to express their feelings/needs to others in a positive, healthy manner
life script (TA)
all ind should dev this at a young age based on their interactions with others, particularly parents, which forms a blueprint for future interactions with people; children who receive positive strokes (feedback) from others usually dev healthy life scripts; children who receive neg strokes sometimes dev self-perpetuating, harmful life scripts that interfere with their abilities to connect and interact well with others as adults; counselors help clients become aware of their unhealthy life script and work toward reconstructing them
feminist therapy
Gilligan; aims to help clients become more aware of the affect of gender on their lives and to empower them to improve their lives and the lives of others; contend that women have been oppressed and put at a disadvantage by society; encourage clients to become societal change agents; strive to create an egalitarian rel and educate women about how many common problems are related to the way women are treated in society; helping clients identify and analyze gender-role messages they have received throughout their lives, reframe their problems, and become more assertive