Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
central business district
the oldest retail setting usually located in the community's downtown area
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
central place theory
Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
clustered rural settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
dispersed rural settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
model that is used to account for a wide variety of flow patterns in human/economic systems, based on Newton's gravity equation which defines gravity or the flow potential (between two sites or locations) as directly proportional to the product of their masses (or size) and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: gravity = (mass × mass) ÷ distance2.
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
Services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers.
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
primate city rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
A numerical relationship showing the number of total jobs created for each new basic job in a region.