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28 terms

Ap human geo chapter 12

STUDY
PLAY
Basic industries
Industries that sell their products or services primarily to consumers outside the settlement.
business services
Services that primarily meet the needs of other businesses.
central business district
the oldest retail setting usually located in the community's downtown area
central place
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area.
central place theory
Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
city-state
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
clustered rural settlement
A rural settlement in which the houses and farm buildings of each family are situated close to each other and fields surround the settlement.
consumer services
Businesses that provide services primarily to individual consumers, including retail services and personal services.
dispersed rural settlement
A rural settlement pattern characterized by isolated farms rather than clustered villages.
economic base
A community's collection of basic industries.
enclosure movement
The process of consolidating small landholdings into a smaller number of larger farms in England during the eighteenth century.
gravity movement
model that is used to account for a wide variety of flow patterns in human/economic systems, based on Newton's gravity equation which defines gravity or the flow potential (between two sites or locations) as directly proportional to the product of their masses (or size) and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them: gravity = (mass × mass) ÷ distance2.
distance decay
market area/hinterland
The area surrounding a central place, from which people are attracted to use the place's goods and services.
nonbasic industries
Industries that sell their products primarily to consumers in the community.
personal services
Services that provide for the well-being and personal improvement of individual consumers.
primate city
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
primate city rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
producer services
Services that primarily help people conduct business.
public services
Services offered by the government to provide security and protection for citizens and businesses
range (of a service)
The maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service
rank-size rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the nth largest settlement is 1/n the population of the largest settlement.
regional multiplier
A numerical relationship showing the number of total jobs created for each new basic job in a region.
retail services
Services that provide goods for sale to consumers.
service
any activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it
settlement
A permanent collection of buildings and inhabitants.
threshold
The minimum number of people needed to support the service
transportation and information services
Services that diffuse and distribute services.
urban hierarchy
a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions