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each kidney contains about ___ nephrons

1 million

cup-shaped extensions of the pelvis


RBCs in the urine due to trauma or infection


what are functions of the kidney?

manufacture urine, convert vitamin D from its inactive to its active form, dispose of metabolic waste products, regulate blood volume

outer, lighter region of the kidney

renal cortex

what is the pigment that gives urine its characteristic yellow color?


darker, reddish-brown internal area of the kidney

renal medulla

the average adult bladder is moderately full with ____ of urine within it

500 mL

the portion of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus is

glomerular (bowman's) capsule

what is the medial indentation of the kidney where several structures such as the ureters, renal blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the kidney called

renal hilus

what are the tiny filtering structures of the kidneys called?


the lumen surfaces of the tubule cells within the proximal convoluted tubule are covered with what?


nitrogenous waste products such as urea, uric acid, and creatinine are what?

excreted from the body

a person with arterial blood pH above 7.45 is said to have what?


a vegetarian diet tends to make their urine more ____, while a high protein diet makes urine more ____.

basic (alkaline); acidic

what is often the final outcome of the urinary system during the aging process?


glucose in the urine due to diabetes mellitus


vessels supplying each kidney with blood to be filtered

renal artery

cortex-like extensions that separate the pyramids

renal columns

the bladder is able to expand as urine accumulates within it due to the presence of

transitional epithelium

triangular regions with a striped appearance

renal pyramid

hemoglobin in the urine due to hemolytic anemia or a transfusion reaction


blood proteins and blood cells are too large to pass through the filtration membrane and should not be found in the filtrate, the urine or both?


the average output of urine for a normal, healthy adult is

1500 mL/day

control of the voluntary urethral sphincter in normal children is tied to

nervous system development

pus containing WBCs and bacteria in the urine due to urinary tract infection


the chemical buffer system that includes carbonic acid and its salt, which ties up the H+ released by strong acids is called

bicarbonate buffer system

the triangular regions of the kidneys that are striped in appearance and separated by the renal columns are the

renal pyramids

each kidney is surrounded and protected by its

renal capsule

in contrasting urine and filtrate by the time it reaches the collecting ducts, it could be said that:

filtrate contains almost everything that blood plasma does, unlike urine

the main hormone that acts on the kidneys to regulate sodium ion concentration of the extracellular fluid is


when carbon dioxide enters the blood from tissue cells, it is converted to ____ for transport within blood plasma

bicarbonate ion

the most potent of all mechanisms and substances that the body uses to regulate blood pH are

the kidneys

proteins in the urine due to pregnancy or excessive exercise


muscular sac suitable for temporary urine storage


the voluntarily controlled sphincter fashioned by skeletal muscle at the point where the urethra passes through the pelvic floor is called the

external urethral sphincter

transports urine and sperm in males


the process of emptying the bladder is referred to as voiding or


enlargement of the prostate that surrounds the neck of the bladder in adult men is called ____, which may cause voiding difficulty


in one 24 hour period, the kidneys of an average sized healthy adult filters approximately ____ through their glomeruli into the tubules

150 - 180 liters of blood plasma

urine is transported from the bladder to the outside of the body by the


from childhood through late middle age, one of the most common bacteria to infect and inflame the urinary tract and cause urethritis and cystitis is


bile pigment in the urine due to hepatitis


what are the organs found in the urinary system?

kidney, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra

as venous blood is drained from the kidney, which path does it follow

cortical radiate veins, arcuate veins, interlobular veins, renal vein

the enlarged, cup-shaped closed end of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus is called

bowman's capsule (glomerular capsule)

in males, this organ is surrounded by the prostate


starting from the glomerular capsule, the correct order of the renal tubule regions is

proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule

Where are most nephrons located?

renal cortex

the non-selective, passive process performed by the glomerulus that forms blood plasma without blood proteins is called


which one of the following is NOT a substance typically reabsorbed by the tubules under normal healthy conditions

urea, ammonia, creatine

what are characteristics of urine under normal healthy conditions

aromatic, acidic, sterile, yellow

what is normally found in urine

sodium and potassium ions, urea, uric acid, creatine, ammonia

the presence of pus in urine is called


the tube connecting the renal hilus of the kidney to the bladder is the


inflammation of this organ is called cystitis


tube that drains urine from the kidney to the bladder


contains an area called the trigone formed by the openings of the ureters and urethra


a simple rule concerning water and electrolyte regulation is

water passively follows salt

the proper pH for the blood is

7.35 - 7.45

the degenerative condition in which blister-like sacs (cysts) containing urine form on the kidneys and obstruct urine drainage is called

polycystic kidney

flat, basin-like cavity medial to the hilus of the kidney

renal pelvis

hypospadias is a condition of male children that involves

opening of the urethra on the ventral surface of the penis

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