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what are functions of the kidney?
manufacture urine, convert vitamin D from its inactive to its active form, dispose of metabolic waste products, regulate blood volume
the portion of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus is
glomerular (bowman's) capsule
what is the medial indentation of the kidney where several structures such as the ureters, renal blood vessels, and nerves enter and exit the kidney called
the lumen surfaces of the tubule cells within the proximal convoluted tubule are covered with what?
a vegetarian diet tends to make their urine more ____, while a high protein diet makes urine more ____.
basic (alkaline); acidic
the bladder is able to expand as urine accumulates within it due to the presence of
blood proteins and blood cells are too large to pass through the filtration membrane and should not be found in the filtrate, the urine or both?
control of the voluntary urethral sphincter in normal children is tied to
nervous system development
the chemical buffer system that includes carbonic acid and its salt, which ties up the H+ released by strong acids is called
bicarbonate buffer system
the triangular regions of the kidneys that are striped in appearance and separated by the renal columns are the
in contrasting urine and filtrate by the time it reaches the collecting ducts, it could be said that:
filtrate contains almost everything that blood plasma does, unlike urine
the main hormone that acts on the kidneys to regulate sodium ion concentration of the extracellular fluid is
when carbon dioxide enters the blood from tissue cells, it is converted to ____ for transport within blood plasma
the most potent of all mechanisms and substances that the body uses to regulate blood pH are
the voluntarily controlled sphincter fashioned by skeletal muscle at the point where the urethra passes through the pelvic floor is called the
external urethral sphincter
enlargement of the prostate that surrounds the neck of the bladder in adult men is called ____, which may cause voiding difficulty
in one 24 hour period, the kidneys of an average sized healthy adult filters approximately ____ through their glomeruli into the tubules
150 - 180 liters of blood plasma
from childhood through late middle age, one of the most common bacteria to infect and inflame the urinary tract and cause urethritis and cystitis is
as venous blood is drained from the kidney, which path does it follow
cortical radiate veins, arcuate veins, interlobular veins, renal vein
the enlarged, cup-shaped closed end of the renal tubule that completely surrounds the glomerulus is called
bowman's capsule (glomerular capsule)
starting from the glomerular capsule, the correct order of the renal tubule regions is
proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule
the non-selective, passive process performed by the glomerulus that forms blood plasma without blood proteins is called
which one of the following is NOT a substance typically reabsorbed by the tubules under normal healthy conditions
urea, ammonia, creatine
the degenerative condition in which blister-like sacs (cysts) containing urine form on the kidneys and obstruct urine drainage is called
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