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Central obesity and insulin resistance

Key risk factors for metabolic syndrome

Excess blood clotting and low levels of systemic inflammation

Metabolic syndrome can cause what two things to happen in the body?

M: > 40, W: >35

Waist circumference in men and women that is associated with metabolic syndrome

>=4 pounds

Risk of developing HTN increases for weight gain of ? after turning 18 years old


Classification of obesity that is known to be particularly dangerous; associated with fat mass becoming capable of hormone secretion

May not always correspond to excess fat/visceral fat

Major limitation of BMI

BMI 25-35

When is WC most helpful?

Waist circumference

Best way of measuring visceral obesity


Energy expended at rest under condition of thermal neutrality


REE measured soon after awakening in the morning, at least 12 hours after the last meal


Hormone responsible for feeling hunger


Hormone responsible for feedback that leads to appetite suppression; becomes resistant as fat stores develop

Brown fat

Fat type that is vascularized and is actually thought to be protective


Protective adipokine that is downregulated as a result of adverse cardiometabolic effects


Wt loss percentage that has shown to have health benefits in obese patients

B3 adrenoreceptor

This receptor has been shown to play a key role in thermogenesis and when stimulated activates lipolysis in fat cells

>27 + comorbidities, >30

BMI cutoffs associated with initiating pharmacotherapy

>35 + comorbidities, >=40

BMI cutoffs for surgical intervention

Balanced diet

Diet that seems to have equivocal weight loss and is capable for being maintained for longest period of time

1200-1600 kcal/d

Caloric intake associated with low calorie diet


Exercise that is more likely to burn/reduce calories


Exercise that is more closely linked to loss of visceral fat

Fatty/oily stool, fecal incontinence, increase in defecation

General SE of orlistat, especially in pts that don't change their diet


Serious SE of orlistat

360 mg

Mg dosage of orlistat

Improvement in lipids, A1c, and can be used in weight maintenance

Benefits of orlistat in addition to short term weight loss

Diethlypropion, phentermine, benzphetamine, phendimetrazine

4 sympathomimetic drugs used in tx of weight loss

12 wks

Time period which sympathomimetics are approved for treatment due to scheduling and addictive properties

Advanced CVD

CI for sympathomimetics

Bupropion, exenitide, pramlintide, metformin, topiramate

Drugs that aren't indicated for weight loss, but may cause beneficial weight loss as a SE and can also tx other conditions at the same time

Insulin, sulfonylureas, phenothiazines, antidepressants, lithium, antipsychotics, antiepileptics, glucocorticoids, progestins, thiazolidinediones

Drugs that are known to cause weight gain


Drug that is seeking approval that is being studied for possibility of birth defects

Leptin, neuropeptide Y

Centrally acting neuropeptides

Tablets and capsules; extended release

Drug formulations that should be avoided post bariatric surgery


OTS meds taken by pts should be free of this post bariatric surgery


Vitamin that should definitely be recommended for pts that are post bariatric surgery

4 hours

Time between orlistat and levothyroxine administration?

2 hours

Time between orlistat and cyclosporine administration?

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