What were two ways that towns won self-government from manor lords?
peacefully and through violence
What is a charter?
a written statement of rights
Name the four basic rights eventually gained by townspeople throughout Europe.
freedom, exemption, town justice, and commercial privileges
Explain the right of freedom gained by European towns.
Anyone who lived in a town for a year and a day became free. This included serfs who escaped from a manor to a town.
Explain the right of exemption gained by European towns.
Townspeople won the right of being exempt from ever having to work on the manor.
Explain the right of town justice gained by European towns.
Towns had their own courts. Leading citizens tried cases involving townspeople.
Explain the commercial privileges gained by European towns.
Townspeople could sell goods freely in the town market. They could also charge tolls to outsiders who wanted to trade there.
As time passed, merchants and workers in towns began to unite in associations called _____.
Name the two types of guilds.
merchant guilds and craft guilds
What main right did a town's merchant guild have?
the sole right to trade there
What did merchants from other towns or nations have to do in order to trade in a particular town?
They had to pay a fee.
Name three ways that merchant guild members helped each other and members' families.
Guilds looked after members who were in trouble, made loans to members, and, when guild members died, aided their widows and children.
For what four things did craft guilds set rules?
wages, hours, working conditions, and quality of work
What two things did craft guilds do for members?
Guilds looked after ill members and those who could no longer work and controlled the training of skilled workers.
What were members of a guild sometimes called?
What three titles did a guild member hold over his career?
apprentice, journeyman, and master
Who housed, fed, clothed, and trained an apprentice?
a master worker
Who paid for an apprentice's lodging, food, clothes, and training?
the apprentice's parents
How long did apprentice training normally take?
Was an apprentice paid?
Could an apprentice get married during his training?
Was a journeyman paid?
What set apart a journeyman from a master worker?
A journeyman had yet to produce a masterpiece of his craft. He also did not have his own shop.
How did a journeyman become a master worker?
He created a masterpiece. If masters of the guild approved his masterpiece, the journeyman could open his own shop.
Did girls ever serve as apprentices?
What was the class between nobles and peasants called?
the middle class
What types of people belonged to the medieval middle class?
towns' guild members
Did the middle class favor kings or nobles as a government?
Why did the middle class favor kings over nobles?
They felt that kings could provide stable governments that would protect trade, business, and property.
Did members of the middle class ever earn government jobs?
Kings looked to the middle class for _____.
In the Middle Ages, most northern and western European cities had fewer than how many people?
In the 1200s, about how many people lived in Paris?
In the 1200s, about how many people lived in growing commercial cities like London, Ghent, and Bruges?
True/False: Towns worsened the living conditions of serfs.
Name three ways that towns improved serfs' lives.
Some serfs escaped to towns to gain freedom. Others were pushed off the land as farming methods changed and moved to cities to find jobs. Serfs who stayed on the manors sold their crops in town markets and paid the lord with money rather than with labor.
True/False: Medieval cities were dark, unsafe, dirty, and unhealthy.
True/False: Medieval cities had streetlights.
In medieval cities, where was waste dumped?
into open gutters
In what year did the Black Death begin?
Where did the plague start?
How did the plague spread through Europe?
It spread along busy trade routes and entered ports by way of trading ships. Black rats on the ships carried the disease; the plague was spread to people by bites from fleas on the rats.
About how many Europeans died from the Black Death?
What fraction of Europe's population died from the plague?
Through what city did the Black Death enter Europe?
The first places in Europe to become infected with the plague were often _____ or _____.
along the coast; nearest to the Eurasian Steppes
In some big towns and cities, what fraction of the population died from the plague?
Name five changes in Europe caused by the Black Death.
People's faith in God was shaken. The church lost some power and importance. Relations between the upper and lower classes changed. Workers, now in short supply, demanded higher wages. In several European countries, peasants staged uprisings.